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The Maršíkov–Schinderhübel III pegmatite in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, Silesian Domain, Czech Republic, is a classic example of chrysoberyl-bearing LCT granitic pegmatite of beryl–columbite subtype. This thin pegmatite dyke, (up to 1 m in thickness in biotite–amphibole gneiss is characterised by symmetrical internal zoning. Tabular and prismatic chrysoberyl crystals (≤3 cm) occur typically in the intermediate albite-rich unit and rarely in the quartz core. Chrysoberyl microtextures are quite complex; their crystals are irregularly patchy, concentric or fine oscillatory zoned with large variations in Fe content (1.1–5.3 wt.% Fe2O3; ≤0.09 apfu). Chrysoberyl compositions reveal dominant Fe3+ = Al3+ and minor Fe2+ + Ti4+ = 2(Al, Fe)3+ substitution mechanisms in the octahedral sites. Tin, Ga, and V (determined by LA-ICP-MS) are characteristic trace elements incorporated in the chrysoberyl structure, whereas anomalously high Ta and Nb concentrations (thousands ppm) in chrysoberyl are probably caused by nano- to micro-inclusions of Nb–Ta oxide minerals; especially columbite–tantalite. Textural relationships between associated minerals, distinct schistosity of the pegmatite parallel to the host gneiss foliation and fragmentation of the pegmatite body into blocks as a result of superimposed stress are clear evidence for deformation and metamorphic overprinting of the pegmatite. Primary magmatic beryl, albite and muscovite were transformed to chrysoberyl, fibrolitic sillimanite, secondary quartz and muscovite during a high-temperature (~600°C) and medium-pressure (~250–500 MPa) prograde metamorphic stage under amphibolite-facies conditions. A subsequent retrograde, low-temperature (~200–500°C) and pressure (≤250 MPa) metamorphic stage resulted in the local alteration of chrysoberyl to secondary Fe,Na-rich beryl, euclase, bertrandite and late muscovite.
Toxocara canis, a gastrointestinal parasite of canids, is also highly prevalent in many paratenic hosts, such as mice and humans. As with many other helminths, the infection is associated with immunomodulatory effects, which could affect other inflammatory conditions including autoimmune and allergic diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of T. canis infection on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Mice infected with 2 doses of 100 T. canis L3 larvae 5 weeks prior to EAE induction (the Tc+EAE group) showed higher EAE clinical scores and greater weight loss compared to the non-infected group with induced EAE (the EAE group). Elevated concentrations of all measured serum cytokines (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ and TNF-α) were observed in the Tc+EAE group compared to the EAE group. In the CNS, the similar number of regulatory T cells (Tregs; CD4+FoxP3+Helios+) but their decreased proportion from total CD4+ cells was found in the Tc+EAE group compared to the EAE group. This could indicate that the group Tc+EAE harboured significantly more CD4+ T cells of non-Treg phenotype within the affected CNS. Altogether, our results demonstrate that infection of mice with T. canis worsens the course of subsequently induced EAE. Further studies are, therefore, urgently needed to reveal the underlying pathological mechanisms and to investigate possible risks for the human population, in which exposure to T. canis is frequent.
Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Microlite-group minerals occur as common replacement products after primary and secondary columbite-group minerals (CGM) in albitised blocky K-feldspar and in coarse-grained, muscovite-rich units of the Schinderhübel I, Scheibengraben and Bienergraben beryl–columbite pegmatites in the Maršíkov District (Silesian Unit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic). Textural and compositional variations of microlite-group minerals were examined using electron probe micro-analyses and microRaman spectroscopy (μRS). A complex post-magmatic evolution of the pegmatites and the following microlite populations (Mic) and related processes were found: (1) precipitation of U, Na-rich and F-poor Mic I on cracks in CGM; (2) alteration of Mic I to U-rich together with Na- and F-poor Mic II; and (3) partial replacement of Mic I and II by Mic III with a distinct Na, U and Ti loss and Ca and F gain. Stage (2) includes an extensive leaching of Na, without U loss. The final stage (3) produced euhedral-to-subhedral oscillatory zoned Ca and F enriched Mic III with distinctly different composition to the previous F-poor and A-site vacant Mic II. Aggregates of fersmite are associated commonly with Mic III. Distal Mic IIId occurs locally on cracks in K-feldspar or quartz, with compositions analogous to Mic III. Compositional variations and textural features of microlite-group minerals during dissolution–reprecipitation processes serve as sensitive tracers of post-magmatic evolution in granitic pegmatites recording complex interactions between magmatic pegmatite units and externally derived, hydrothermal metamorphic fluids.
The systematic review examined the phenomenon of trust during public health emergency events. The literature reviewed was field studies done with people directly affected or likely to be affected by such events and included quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method, and case study primary studies in English (N = 38) as well as Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish (all non-English N = 30). Studies were mostly from high- and middle-income countries, and the event most covered was infectious disease. Findings from individual studies were first synthesized within methods and evaluated for certainty/confidence, and then synthesized across methods. The final set of 11 findings synthesized across methods identified a set of activities for enhancing trust and showed that it is a multi-faceted and dynamic concept.
Previous studies of patients with unipolar depression have shown that early decrease of prefrontal EEG cordance in theta band can predict clinical response to various antidepressants. We have now examined whether decrease of prefrontal quantitative EEG (QEEG) cordance value after 1 week of venlafaxine treatment predicts clinical response to venlafaxine in resistant patients.
We analyzed 25 inpatients who finished 4-week venlafaxine treatment. EEG data were monitored at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. QEEG cordance was computed at three frontal electrodes in theta frequency band. Depressive symptoms and clinical status were assessed using Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-S) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI).
Eleven of 12 responders (reduction of MADRS ≥50%) and only 5 of 13 non-responders had decreased prefrontal QEEG cordance value after the first week of treatment (p = 0.01). The decrease of prefrontal cordance after week 1 in responders was significant (p = 0.03) and there was no significant change in non-responders. Positive and negative predictive values of cordance reduction for response were 0.7 and 0.9, respectively.
The reduction of prefrontal theta QEEG cordance value after first week of treatment might be helpful in the prediction of response to venlafaxine.