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HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.
A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March–May 2016 and followed up March–May 2017.
HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.
In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9–53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0–28.6 n = 16) was observed.
HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
We present an update of our ongoing project to characterise the impact of radio jets on the interstellar medium (ISM). This is done by tracing the distribution, kinematics and excitation of the molecular gas at high spatial resolution using ALMA. The radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) studied are in the interesting phase of having a recently born radio jet. In this stage, the plasma jets can have the largest impact on the ISM, as also predicted by state-of-the-art simulations. The two targets we present have quite different ages, allowing us to get snapshots of the effects of radio jets as they grow and evolve. Interestingly, both also host powerful quasar emission, making them ideal for studying the full impact of AGN. The largest mass outflow rate of molecular gas is found in a radio galaxy () hosting a newly born radio jet still in the early phase of emerging from an obscuring cocoon of gas and dust. Although the molecular mass outflow rate is high (few hundred), the outflow is limited to the inner few hundred pc region. In a second object (), the jet is larger (a few kpc) and is in a more advanced evolutionary phase. In this object, the distribution of the molecular gas is reminiscent of what is seen, on larger scales, in cool-core clusters hosting radio galaxies. Interestingly, gas deviating from quiescent kinematics (possibly indicating an outflow) is not very prominent, limited only to the very inner region, and has a low mass outflow rate. Instead, on kpc scales, the radio lobes appear associated with depressions in the distribution of the molecular gas. This suggests that the lobes have broken out from the dense nuclear region. However, the AGN does not appear to be able, at present, to stop the star formation observed in this galaxy. These results support the idea that the effects of the radio source start in the very first phases by producing outflows which, however, tend to be limited to the kpc region. After that, the effects turn into producing large-scale bubbles which could, in the long term, prevent the surrounding gas from cooling. Thus, our results provide a way to characterise the effect of radio jets in different phases of their evolution and in different environments, bridging the studies done for radio galaxies in clusters.
With ageing there is a reduction in muscle mass and strength, termed sarcopenia. A further consequence of ageing is a reduction in appetite and this can result in a reduced energy intake and malnutrition. Increased dietary protein intake may reduce the risk of sarcopenia, however, protein is particularly satiating. Increasing protein intake in the older adult population, without a reduction of overall energy intake and appetite is desirable. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protein supplementation on dietary intake and appetite. A further aim was to explore whether the time of consumption (morning vs evening) modified the impact of protein on energy intake and appetite.
Materials and methods
Twenty-four middle-older aged (50–75 years) participants were recruited to a randomised cross-over trial. In phase 1 (pre-supplementation) participants completed a 3d food diary and were asked to report hunger and appetite using visual analogue scale questionnaires. In the second and third phases, participants consumed a whey protein gel (containing 20 g protein and 376kJ of energy) for 4 days at either the evening (before bed) or in the morning (after breakfast) and completed the same tasks as phase 1. There was a 1-week wash-out period before crossing over to the alternative time point. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse the data.
There was no significant difference in average daily energy and macronutrient intake provided by the habitual diet in the pre-supplementation phase compared to the whey protein supplementation phases, irrespective of timing (p > 0.05). Similarly, no significant differences were observed in reported feelings of hunger and appetite (p > 0.05).
Contrary to expectations, the addition of a 20g/day whey protein supplement did not alter subsequent energy and macronutrient intake when consumed over a 4-day period in this middle-older adult population. This may be due to the low-calorie composition of the supplement, or the timing of the intake. This research helps to inform protein delivery strategies, however different product formulations need to be explored, and studies of longer duration are required to understand the impact of prolonged supplementation on eating behaviour.
Interactions between polyphenols and non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) can impact on polyphenolic metabolites bioavailability, including phenolic acids. The BLEND2 trial (NCT03840746) aims to study longer-term interactions of a flavonoid-rich food with/without NDC on microbiota metabolites and cardiometabolic markers. Trial feasibility using a bespoke food was tested.
Material and Methods
The soup was developed locally containing cherry tomatoes, tomato puree, red onion, fresh lovage, with/without the NDC inulin (10g), but improved and processed with Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, UK. The final product (~400g/ tin) was evaluated with VAS scales (0–10) for appearance, smell, taste and overall palatability, and flavonoid content evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 3-arm parallel randomised blinded design (control soup, soup + inulin, habitual diet control) recruited self-reported healthy participants (BMI > 25, 40–70y) with urine, blood, faecal samples collected at baseline, 3-week, 6-weeks.
Both soups scored similarly (n = 8 testers) for visual appeal (with inulin 5.1 ± 2.1; without 4.5 ± 2.0); smell (with 5.9 ± 1.7; without 5.4 ± 0.8); taste (with 6.6 ± 2.0; without 5.5 ± 2.3), aftertaste (with 6.3 ± 2.9; without 5.4 ± 2.3) and overall palatability (with 7.0 ± 1.9; without 6.1 ± 2.1).
The soups (A&B), 1 tin/day, provide 68.5 ± 10.9 mg total flavonoids (soup A n = 3, quercetin equivalents) and 74.0 ± 16.1 mg (soup B, n = 3): quercetin (A 1.2 ± 0.1 mg; B 1.3 ± 0.6 mg), quercetin-4-glucoside (A 3.9 ± 1.0 mg; B 4.1 ± 1.9 mg), quercetin-3-rutinoside (A 23.0 ± 3.2 mg; B 20.5 ± 1.0 mg), quercetin 3,4-diglucosides (A 40.5 ± 6.9 mg; B 48.2 ± 14.9 mg).
Following notes of interest (n = 415), n = 111 attended screening, n = 34 did not proceed (medications, opt-out; 31%). Participants (n = 77) are mostly British (79%), median age 56y (IQR 49-62) with a median BMI of 31 (IQR 28-35). Dropout was low (12%) and early in the study (personal issues, n = 2; gastrointestinal issues, n = 2; failure to comply with protocol, n = 2; acid reflux symptoms, n = 1; dislike of test food, n = 1). Adverse events included acid reflux/heartburn (n = 4), gastrointestinal distress (n = 3) accounting for 3 drop-outs.
To date, urine, blood and faecal samples (study day or day + 1) were collected at all timepoints, for all participants. Participation (soup arms) has not led to body weight or blood lipids changes compared to control group.
The protocol for this 6-week trial has proved feasible with lower dropout than expected. Soup flavonoid content representing ~16% of average European flavonoid intakes, with inulin (10g) half the UK daily fibre intake. The soup was well accepted with few reports of adverse issues. Recruitment in this population is challenging, due to high levels of medication and ill health.
To assess the impact of a newly developed Central-Line Insertion Site Assessment (CLISA) score on the incidence of local inflammation or infection for CLABSI prevention.
A pre- and postintervention, quasi-experimental quality improvement study.
Setting and participants:
Adult inpatients with central venous catheters (CVCs) hospitalized in an intensive care unit or oncology ward at a large academic medical center.
We evaluated CLISA score impact on insertion site inflammation and infection (CLISA score of 2 or 3) incidence in the baseline period (June 2014–January 2015) and the intervention period (April 2015–October 2017) using interrupted times series and generalized linear mixed-effects multivariable analyses. These were run separately for days-to-line removal from identification of a CLISA score of 2 or 3. CLISA score interrater reliability and photo quiz results were evaluated.
Among 6,957 CVCs assessed 40,846 times, percentage of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 in the baseline and intervention periods decreased by 78.2% (from 22.0% to 4.7%), with a significant immediate decrease in the time-series analysis (P < .001). According to the multivariable regression, the intervention was associated with lower percentage of lines with a CLISA score of 2 or 3, after adjusting for age, gender, CVC body location, and hospital unit (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.34; P < .001). According to the multivariate regression, days to removal of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 was 3.19 days faster after the intervention (P < .001). Also, line dwell time decreased 37.1% from a mean of 14 days (standard deviation [SD], 10.6) to 8.8 days (SD, 9.0) (P < .001). Device utilization ratios decreased 9% from 0.64 (SD, 0.08) to 0.58 (SD, 0.06) (P = .039).
The CLISA score creates a common language for assessing line infection risk and successfully promotes high compliance with best practices in timely line removal.
Although patients value evidence-based therapeutic activities, little is known about nurses' perceptions.
To investigate whether implementing an activities training programme would positively alter staff perceptions of the ward or be detrimental through the increased workload (trial registration: ISRCTN 06545047).
We conducted a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial involving 16 wards with psychology-led nurse training as the intervention. The main outcome was a staff self-report measure of perceptions of the ward (VOTE) and secondary outcomes measuring potential deterioration were the Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Data were analysed using mixed-effects regression models, with repeated assessments from staff over time.
There were 1075 valid outcome measurements from 539 nursing staff. VOTE scores did not change over time (standardised effect size 0.04, 95% CI –0.09 to 0.18, P = 0.54), neither did IWS or MBI scores (IWS, standardised effect size 0.02, 95% CI –0.11 to 0.16, P = 0.74; MBI standardised effect size –0.09, 95% CI –0.24 to 0.06, P = 0.24). There was a mean increase of 1.5 activities per ward (95% CI –0.4 to 3.4, P = 0.12) and on average 6.3 more patients attended groups (95% CI –4.1 to 16.6, P = 0.23) following training. Staff feedback on training was positive.
Our training programme did not change nurses' perceptions of the ward, job satisfaction or burnout. During the study period many service changes occurred, most having a negative impact through increased pressure on staffing, patient mix and management so it is perhaps unsurprising that we found no benefits or reduction in staff skill.
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
There are significant challenges to retaining indigenous biodiversity and ecological infrastructure in African cities. These include a lack of formal protection and status for remnant ecologically functional patches rendering them open to ad hoc human settlement, which is in part linked to weak governance and management emerging from complex histories, and competing crisis-ridden demands. Persistent gaps in knowledge and practice mean that the social, economic, development and well-being benefits of ecological infrastructure are not understood or demonstrated. Addressing these challenges requires the adoption of multiple top-down government interventions and bottom-up community and neighbourhood actions. The development of detailed case studies that engage with knowledge generation and sharing at multiple scales through co-learning practices will also help create a much-needed deeper understanding of development options within this context.