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Correlative microscopy approaches are attracting considerable interest in several research fields such as materials and battery research. Recent developments regarding X-ray computer tomography have made this technique available in a compact module for scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). Nano-computed tomography (nanoCT) allows morphological analysis of samples in a nondestructive way and to generate 2D and 3D overviews. However, morphological analysis alone is not sufficient for advanced studies, and to draw conclusions beyond morphology, chemical analysis is needed. While conventional SEM-based chemical analysis techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) are adequate in many cases, they are not well suited for the analysis of trace elements and low-Z elements such as hydrogen or lithium. Furthermore, the large information depth in typical SEM-EDS imaging conditions limits the lateral resolution to micrometer length scales. In contrast, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can perform elemental mapping with good surface sensitivity, nanoscale lateral resolution, and the possibility to analyze even low-Z elements and isotopes. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility and compatibility of a novel FIB-SEM-based correlative nanoCT-SIMS imaging approach to correlate morphological and chemical data of the exact same sample volume, using a cathode material of a commercial lithium battery as an example.
To compare the prevalence of select cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus lifetime history of major depression disorder (MDD) and a normal comparison group using baseline data from the Prevention of Alzheimer’s Dementia with Cognitive Remediation plus Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (PACt-MD) study.
Baseline data from a multi-centered intervention study of older adults with MCI, history of MDD, or combined MCI and history of MDD (PACt-MD) were analyzed.
Community-based multi-centered study based in Toronto across 5 academic sites.
Older adults with MCI, history of MDD, or combined MCI and history of MDD and healthy controls.
We examined the baseline distribution of smoking, hypertension and diabetes in three groups of participants aged 60+ years in the PACt-MD cohort study: MCI (n = 278), MDD (n = 95), and healthy older controls (n = 81). Generalized linear models were fitted to study the effect of CVRFs on MCI and MDD as well as neuropsychological composite scores.
A higher odds of hypertension among the MCI cohort compared to healthy controls (p < .05) was noted in unadjusted analysis. Statistical significance level was lost on adjusting for age, sex and education (p > .05). A history of hypertension was associated with lower performance in composite executive function (p < .05) and overall composite neuropsychological test score (p < .05) among a pooled cohort with MCI or MDD.
This study reinforces the importance of treating modifiable CVRFs, specifically hypertension, as a means of mitigating cognitive decline in patients with at-risk cognitive conditions.
Silicon germanium (SiGe) is considered to substitute silicon (Si) as channel material of p-type MOSFET in future CMOS generations due to its higher hole mobility. In this work we investigate SiGe channels with a germanium concentration of 23 at% and 30 at%, even though the mobility is expected to be higher with even more germanium in the alloy. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used for SiGe deposition. A state of the art CMOS process including high-k dielectric and metal gate electrode was applied for fabrication of sub 50 nm gate length devices. As expected from the SiGe channel conduction and valence band offset the threshold voltage of the devices is influenced. The gate stack was directly deposited onto the SiGe layer consisting of a chemically grown base oxide, hafnium-based dielectric and titanium nitride gate electrode. C-V and I-V measurements show comparable CET and leakage values for the high-k metal gate stack on Si and SiGe channels. The trap density at the channel dielectric interface was determined using the charge pumping technique. The device characteristics of n- and p-MOSFETs with SiGe channels are compared to conventional Si channel devices. Short channel mobility was extracted with the gM,LIN-Method.
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