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An examination of collections from Japan has increased the number of Brianaria and Micarea species known from that country from eight to 19, including one new species, M. rubioides Coppins (also from Malaysia and the Philippines). Eleven species are reported as new to Japan (M. botryoides (Nyl.) Coppins, M. denigrata (Fr.) Hedl., M. erratica (Körb.) Hertel et al., M. hedlundii Coppins, M. lithinella (Nyl.) Hedl., M. micrococca (Körb.) Gams ex Coppins and M. misella (Nyl.) Hedl.) or new to Asia: M. byssacea (Th. Fr.) Czarnota et al., M. deminuta Coppins and M. xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg (new to Asia; Japan); M. nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm. (new to Asia; South Korea). The presence of Micarea prasina s. str. from Japan needs to be confirmed; no collection was found in this study. Additional collections from South Korea and Sri Lanka are also reported, including the new species M. ceylanica Coppins from Sri Lanka. The identity of M. synotheoides (Nyl.) Coppins, originally described from Japan, has been resolved, resulting in the renaming of Western European material, previously under that name, as M. longispora Coppins. Micarea coreana Lőkös et al. is reported here as a synonym of M. erratica. The type of Lecidea inopinula Nyl. requires the new combination Micarea inopinula (Nyl.) Coppins & T. Sprib. to replace Micarea prasinella (Jatta) I. M. Lamb.
Lichens are widely acknowledged to be a key component of high latitude ecosystems. However, the time investment needed for full inventories and the lack of taxonomic identification resources for crustose lichen and lichenicolous fungal diversity have hampered efforts to fully gauge the depth of species richness in these ecosystems. Using a combination of classical field inventory and extensive deployment of chemical and molecular analysis, we assessed the diversity of lichens and associated fungi in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (USA), a mixed landscape of coastal boreal rainforest and early successional low elevation habitats deglaciated after the Little Ice Age. We collected nearly 5000 specimens and found a total of 947 taxa, including 831 taxa of lichen-forming and 96 taxa of lichenicolous fungi together with 20 taxa of saprotrophic fungi typically included in lichen studies. A total of 98 species (10.3% of those detected) could not be assigned to known species and of those, two genera and 27 species are described here as new to science: Atrophysma cyanomelanos gen. et sp. nov., Bacidina circumpulla, Biatora marmorea, Carneothele sphagnicola gen. et sp. nov., Cirrenalia lichenicola, Corticifraga nephromatis, Fuscidea muskeg, Fuscopannaria dillmaniae, Halecania athallina, Hydropunctaria alaskana, Lambiella aliphatica, Lecania hydrophobica, Lecanora viridipruinosa, Lecidea griseomarginata, L. streveleri, Miriquidica gyrizans, Niesslia peltigerae, Ochrolechia cooperi, Placynthium glaciale, Porpidia seakensis, Rhizocarpon haidense, Sagiolechia phaeospora, Sclerococcum fissurinae, Spilonema maritimum, Thelocarpon immersum, Toensbergia blastidiata and Xenonectriella nephromatis. An additional 71 ‘known unknown’ species are cursorily described. Four new combinations are made: Lepra subvelata (G. K. Merr.) T. Sprib., Ochrolechia minuta (Degel.) T. Sprib., Steineropsis laceratula (Hue) T. Sprib. & Ekman and Toensbergia geminipara (Th. Fr.) T. Sprib. & Resl. Thirty-eight taxa are new to North America and 93 additional taxa new to Alaska. We use four to eight DNA loci to validate the placement of ten of the new species in the orders Baeomycetales, Ostropales, Lecanorales, Peltigerales, Pertusariales and the broader class Lecanoromycetes with maximum likelihood analyses. We present a total of 280 new fungal DNA sequences. The lichen inventory from Glacier Bay National Park represents the second largest number of lichens and associated fungi documented from an area of comparable size and the largest to date in North America. Coming from almost 60°N, these results again underline the potential for high lichen diversity in high latitude ecosystems.
Since the advent of molecular taxonomy, numerous lichen-forming fungi with homoiomerous thalli initially classified in the family Collemataceae Zenker have been transferred to other families, highlighting the extent of morphological convergence within Lecanoromycetes O. E. Erikss. & Winka. While the higher level classification of these fungi might be clarified by such transfers, numerous specific and generic classifications remain to be addressed. We examined the relationships within the broadly circumscribed genus Arctomia Th. Fr., which has been the recipient of several transfers from Collemataceae. We demonstrated that Arctomia insignis (P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg) Ertz does not belong to Arctomia s. str. but forms a strong monophyletic group with Gabura fascicularis (L.) P. M. Jørg. We also confirmed that Arctomia borbonica Magain & Sérus. and the closely related Arctomia insignis represent two species. We formally transferred A. insignis and A. borbonica to the genus Gabura Adans. and introduced two new combinations: Gabura insignis and Gabura borbonica. We reported Gabura insignis from Europe (Scotland and Ireland) for the first time. While material from Europe and North America is genetically almost identical, specimens from Madagascar, South Africa and Reunion Island belong to three distinct phylogenetic lineages, all of which are present in the latter area and may represent distinct species. In its current circumscription, the genus Gabura may contain up to six species, whereas Arctomia s. str. includes only two species (A. delicatula Th. Fr. and A. teretiuscula P. M. Jørg.). The Gabura insignis group is shown to have an unexpectedly large, subcosmopolitan distribution. With the extended sampling from Arctomiaceae Th. Fr., the placement of Steinera sorediata P. James & Henssen in the genus Steinera Zahlbr. is confirmed and the presence of a new Steinera species from Chile is highlighted.
Rinodina is a widespread, polyphyletic genus of crustose Physciaceae with c. 300 species worldwide. A major missing link in understanding its global biogeography has been eastern Asia where the genus has never been systematically revised. Here we review specimen and literature records for Rinodina for north-eastern Asia (Russian Far East, Japan and the Korean Peninsula) and recognize 43 species. We describe two species, R. hypobadia and R. orientalis, as new to science. Rinodina hypobadia is distinguished by its pigmented hypothecium, Dirinaria-type ascospores and pannarin in both thallus and epihymenium. Rinodina orientalis is characterized by its erumpent apothecia that remain broadly attached, with discs sometimes becoming convex and excluding the thalline margins, ascospores belonging to the Physcia-type and secondary metabolites absent. Nine other species are reported from the region for the first time. These include R. dolichospora, R. freyi, R. metaboliza, R. sicula, R. subminuta and R. willeyi. Of particular biogeographical interest are three additional new records that have western North American–eastern Asian distributions: the corticolous species R. endospora, R. macrospora and R. megistospora. Six species have the better known eastern North American–eastern Asian distributions: R. ascociscana (syn. R. akagiensis, R. melancholica), R. buckii, R. chrysidiata, R. subminuta, R. tenuis (syn. R. adirondackii) and R. willeyi, and two have eastern North American–eastern Asian–European distributions: R. excrescens and R. moziana (syn. R. destituta, R. vezdae). Our study begins to close one of the largest gaps in our knowledge of circumboreal species distributions in Rinodina and, together with previous studies in North America and Europe, provides new insights into circumboreal crustose lichen biogeography. Rinodina cinereovirens (syn. R. turfacea var. cinereovirens) is also reported as new to North America.
The genus Rinodina (Physciaceae), with approximately 300 species, has been subject to few phylogenetic studies. Consequently taxonomic hypotheses in Rinodina are largely reliant on phenotypic data, while hypotheses incorporating DNA dependent methods remain to be tested. Here we investigate Rinodina degeliana/R. subparieta and the Rinodina mniaraea group, which previously have not been subjected to comprehensive molecular and phenotypic studies. We conducted detailed morphological, anatomical, chemical, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation studies including 24 newly sequenced specimens. We propose that Rinodina degeliana and R. subparieta are conspecific and that chemical morphs within the R. mniaraea group should be recognized as distinct species. We also propose the placement of the recently described genus Oxnerella in Physciaceae.
Spilonema was originally described to accommodate an unusual group of cyanolichens with thread-like, cushion-forming thalli, and has long been placed in Coccocarpiaceae based on ascomatal development. However, Spilonema is the only genus of Peltigerales to include species lichenized with the cyanobacterial genus Stigonema, and the evolutionary relationships of Spilonema to other genera in the family have yet to be tested using molecular data. We present evidence from combined nuclear 28S, 18S and mitochondrial 12S rDNA to confirm the placement of the core species of Spilonema (S. paradoxum and S. revertens) in Coccocarpiaceae. Our data further show that despite possessing a different genus of photobiont (Scytonema), the north Pacific endemic genus Spilonemella must be included within Spilonema, suggesting that closely related species of the genus have changed photobionts in the course of evolution. However, we recovered Spilonema dendroides, one of the only lichens known to associate with the cyanobacterial genus Hyphomorpha, as only distantly related to the Coccocarpiaceae. The evolutionary relationships of this species are as yet unclear but it may occupy a basal position in the Peltigerales. We create for this species the new genus Erinacellus T. Sprib., Muggia & Tønsberg.
A taxonomic and biogeographic overview of the genus Myrionora is provided. Two species are recognized, M. albidula (Willey) R. C. Harris and M. pseudocyphellariae (Etayo) S. Ekman & Palice comb. nov. The genus is characterized by polysporous asci, the presence of crystals in the hymenium and proper exciple that partly consist of lobaric acid, and a photobiont with large cells (mostly in the range 12–20 µm). Myrionora albidula is currently known from Germany, Norway, Sweden, the Russian Federation (Altayskiy Kray, Chelyabinskaya Oblast', Khabarovskiy Kray and Zabaykal'skiy Kray), and the United States (Alaska, Connecticut, Maine and Massachusetts). It inhabits bark of deciduous trees and shrubs and conifers over a wide range of latitudes. Myrionora pseudocyphellariae is known from Chile and Ecuador, where it has been encountered on lichens and decaying bark. Based on morphological characteristics, we conclude that Myrionora belongs in the Ramalinaceae.
The crustose lichen genus Mycoblastus in the Northern Hemisphere includes eight recognized species sharing large, simple ascospores produced 1–2 per ascus in strongly pigmented biatorine apothecia. The monophyly of Mycoblastus and the relationship of its various species to Tephromelataceae have never been studied in detail. Data from ITS rDNA and the genes coding for translation elongation factor 1-α and DNA replication licensing factor mini-chromosome maintenance complex 7 support the distinctness of Mycoblastus s. str. from the core of the Tephromelataceae, but recover M. fucatus and an undescribed Asian species as strongly supported within the latter group. We propose accommodating these two species in a new genus, Violella, which is characterized by its brownish inner ascospore walls, Fucatus-violet hymenial pigment granules and secondary chemistry, and discuss the position of Violella relative to Calvitimela and Tephromela. We describe the new species Violella wangii T. Sprib. & Goffinet to accommodate a new species with roccellic acid from Bhutan, China, India and the Russian Far East. We also exclude Mycoblastus indicus Awasthi & Agarwal from the genus Mycoblastus and propose for it the new combination Malmidea indica (Awasthi & Agarwal) Hafellner & T. Sprib.
The new lichenicolous fungus Llimoniella cinnabarinae growing on Ramboldia cinnabarina from Alaska is described. The lack of excipular or epihymenial K+ purplish, violet or green pigments places it near the recently described L. phaeophysciae group. Its affinity with Llimoniella and other members of lichenicolous Helotiales is discussed.
Elixia cretica T. Sprib. & Lumbsch is described as a new species from the mountains of western Crete. The second member of the previously monotypic genus and only the third member of the family Elixiaceae, it is distinguished by its surficial thallus, larger ascospores and corticolous habit. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a sequence of mitochondrial small subunit DNA confirms the position of the new species. We also report E. flexella from New Hampshire (USA) as new to eastern North America.
The new lichen genus Myochroidea is described to accommodate four species of the Lecidea leprosula group. Myochroidea is characterized by a crustose, areolate, minutely crenate to almost coralloid or indistinct, grey-brown to olive-brown thallus, reddish brown apothecia with an often persistent margin, moderately branched and anastomosing paraphyses with often swollen, pigmented apical cells, asci of the Micarea-type, and colourless, one-celled, fusiform to broadly ellipsoid ascospores. The new combinations Myochroidea leprosula (Arnold) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg comb. nov., M. porphyrospoda (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg comb. nov., M. rufofusca (Anzi) Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg comb. nov. and the new species M. minutula Printzen, T. Sprib. & Tønsberg are published. Lecidea porphyroplaca Hinteregger & Poelt is a synonym of M. rufofusca. Descriptions of the four species and an identification key are provided. Myochroidea leprosula and M. rufofusca are reported as new to North America.
Lecidea rubrocastanea T. Sprib. & Printzen is described as new from conifer bark and wood in montane valleys of inland British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington State. It is characterized by its combination of a crustose olivaceous thallus lacking secondary lichen substances, small, dark burgundy-red or maroon apothecia, dark-capped paraphyses, Lecidella-type ascus, small, thin-walled ascospores, and bacilliform conidia. The generic affinities of the species based on analysis of ITS DNA are unclear, but it has numerous morphological traits in common with Japewia.
Schaereria dolodes (Nyl. ex Hasse) Schmull & T. Sprib. comb. nov., an epiphytic lichen species known from western North America was originally described as a member of the genus Lecidea sensu lato. However, its morphology is very characteristic of the genus Schaereria Körb. Here, we lectotypify the species and propose its placement in the latter genus. It is also reported as new to Canada from British Columbia.