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The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case–control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.
We study the axisymmetric evolution of a liquid film on a solid sphere governed by gravity, capillarity and viscous forces. The lubrication equations established in spherical coordinates are numerically solved using finite elements and local similarity solutions are obtained. Results show that the evolution behaves differently at early and late stages. At the early stage, the interface evolves in such a way that the capillary effect can be ignored. At the late stage, there emerge four zones from top to bottom: a thin film, a ridge ring, a dimple ring and a pendant drop. Each zone is governed by the balance of different forces, and hence is characterized by an individual physical mechanism. Consequently, the pendant drop is quasi-static, and the film thicknesses of other regions follow different scaling laws. The position of the dimple remains unchanged at the late stage.
Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis; thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of liver cancer is urgently needed. The well-established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), heavy alcohol consumption, metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and aflatoxin exposure. However, a large proportion of cancer cases worldwide cannot be explained by current known risk factors. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but dietary aetiology of liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarised and evaluated the observational studies of diet including single nutrients, food and food groups, as well as dietary patterns with the risk of developing liver cancer. Although there are large knowledge gaps between diet and liver cancer risk, current epidemiological evidence supports an important role of diet in liver cancer development. For example, exposure to aflatoxin, heavy alcohol drinking and possibly dairy product (not including yogurt) intake increase, while intake of coffee, fish and tea, light-to-moderate alcohol drinking and several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. Alternative Healthy Eating Index) may decrease liver cancer risk. Future studies with large sample size and accurate diet measurement are warranted and need to consider issues such as the possible aetiological heterogeneity between liver cancer subtypes, the influence of chronic HBV or HCV infection, the high-risk populations (e.g. cirrhosis) and a potential interplay with host gut microbiota or genetic variations.
Findings for the roles of dairy products, Ca and vitamin D on ovarian cancer risk remain controversial. We aimed to assess these associations by using an updated meta-analysis. Five electronic databases (e.g. PubMed and Embase) were searched from inception to 24 December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. A total of twenty-nine case–control or cohort studies were included. For comparisons of the highest v. lowest intakes, higher whole milk intake was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (RR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59), whereas decreased risks were observed for higher intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96), dietary Ca (RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84) and dietary vitamin D (RR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·95). Additionally, for every 100 g/d increment, increased ovarian cancer risks were found for total dairy products (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) and for whole milk (RR 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11); however, decreased risks were found for 100 g/d increased intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·99), cheese (RR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·98), dietary Ca (RR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98), total Ca (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99), dietary vitamin D (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) and increased levels of circulating vitamin D (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97). These results show that whole milk intake might contribute to a higher ovarian cancer risk, whereas low-fat milk, dietary Ca and dietary vitamin D might reduce the risk.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
To assess helical tomotherapy (TOMO) current clinical application and practice in mainland China.
Materials and methods:
Data were collected for all TOMO units clinically operational in mainland China by 30 April 2016, including (a) the distribution of installation and staffing levels; (b) types of cancers treated; (c) utilisation efficiency; (d) quality assurance; (e) maintenance; (f) optional features; and (g) satisfaction levels. The data were collected as a census and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
As of 30 April 2016, 23 TOMO units were used clinically by 22 hospitals in mainland China. In the same period, 22,558 cancer patients were treated. For TOMO units with more than a year of clinical utilisation, a median of 378 cases were treated annually per machine. The median daily operation was 10·5 hours, and treatment headcount was 38·3 patients. The median service outage rate was 2·6%, and the most common cause was malfunction of the multi-leaf collimator. In terms of overall satisfaction levels, 3 hospitals were very satisfied, 16 were satisfied and 3 considered their satisfaction level as average.
The overall operation of TOMO is good, but there are some problems due to running at full capacity, lack of clinical efficacy research and insufficient quality assurance regulations.
Two phases of diabase-sill-forming magmatism are recorded within the Badu anticline where magmas were emplaced into upper Palaeozoic carbonates and clastic rocks of the Youjiang fold-and-thrust belt in the SW South China Block, China. Zircons from these diabase units yield weighted mean U–Pb ages of 249.2±2.0 Ma and 187.1±3.3 Ma, and magmatic oxygen fugacity values from ‒20 to ‒6 (average of ‒12, equating to FMQ +5) and ‒20 to ‒10 (average of ‒15, equating to FMQ +2), respectively. These data indicate that the sills were emplaced during Early Triassic and Early Jurassic times. The discovery of c. 250 Ma mafic magmatism in this area was probably related to post-flood-basalt extension associated with the Emeishan mantle plume or rollback of the subducting Palaeo-Tethys slab. The c. 190 Ma diabase sills indicate that the southwestern South China Block records Early Jurassic mafic magmatism and lithospheric extension that was likely associated with a transition from post-collisional to within-plate tectonic regimes. The emplacement of diabase intrusions at depth may have driven hydrothermal systems, enabling the mobilization of elements from sedimentary rocks and causing the formation of a giant epigenetic metallogenic domain. The results indicate that high-oxygen-fugacity materials within basement rocks caused crustal contamination of the magmas, contributing to the wide range of oxygen fugacity conditions recorded by the Au-bearing Badu diabase. In addition, data from inherited xenocrystic zircons within the Badu diabase and detrital zircons from basement rocks suggest that the Neoproterozoic Jiangshao suture extends to the south of the Badu anticline.
The late Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin consists of five lithological units and with increasing depth include the: Chengdu Clay; Brown Clay; Red Clay; Sandy Silt; and basal Muddy Gravel. The genesis, provenance and age of the sediments, as well as the possible presence of hiatuses within this sequence are debated. Measurements of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, quartz content, quartz δ18O values, element composition, and Sr–Nd isotopic concentrations of samples from a typical sedimentary sequence in the area provides new insights into the genesis and history of the sequence. The new data confirm that the sediments in study site are alluvial–aeolian in origin, with basal alluvial deposits overlain by aeolian deposits. Like the uppermost Chengdu Clay, the underlying Brown Clay and Red Clay are aeolian in origin. In contrast, the Silty Sand, like the basal Muddy Gravel, is an alluvial deposit and not an aeolian deposit as previously thought. Moreover, the succession of the aeolian deposits very likely contains two significant sedimentary hiatuses. Sedimentological analysis demonstrates that the source materials for the aeolian deposits in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin and those on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are different. Furthermore, the loess deposits on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are derived from heterogeneous local sources.
Secondary plant metabolites may influence plant–plant interactions and plant
invasions. Distinguishing such chemicals requires integrating varying
chemical ecology approaches, information on the amounts and persistence of
specific chemicals in nature, and measures of effects (e.g., phytotoxicity
assays) to judge the importance of the chemicals (e.g., allelochemicals).
The invasive plant croftonweed has caused substantial ecological and
economic losses in China. We examined contents and degradation of
croftonweed chemicals in the soil and their potential phytotoxic effects on
conspecific and five allospecific plant species. Soils in which croftonweed
was grown had four phytotoxins: DEHP, DBP, DTD, and HHO. All chemicals were
detected in croftonweed-invaded soil, with contents ranging from 0.013 (for
DEHP) to 0.353 (for DTD) µg g−1 of soil. All four compounds were
degraded rapidly in 1 wk. Combinations of the chemicals inhibited seed
germination or seedling growth of four of the six plants, including
croftonweed itself, at mean contents found in the soil. The putative
allelochemicals degraded rapidly in the soil, and the low levels of
allelochemicals observed in the soil may be sufficient to affect seed
germination and plant growth.
Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder
To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly
assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and
In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration
number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for
5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups
followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and
Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction
(F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects
for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual
care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for
worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life
for the psychoeducation group only.
These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be
superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms.
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and conductive polymer composite were studied as a potential electrode candidate for plastic electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and solar cells. A novel conductive polymer, poly(2,7–9,9(di(oxy-2,5,8-trioxadecane))fluorene) (PFO), was synthesized and characterized as a surfactant to disperse SWNTs in solutions. The ethylene oxide (EO) side chain of rigid PFO backbone acts as a template to wrap around SWNTs in solution. Up to 0.02% (by weight) of SWNTs are stabilized and well separated in the solution phase. The carbon nanotube can be dispersed in solutions for over 4 mo. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of solvent cast film suggest highly uniformed SWNT distribution incorporated in the conductive polymer matrix. Transmittance characterization shows the film is as transparent as indium tin oxide conducting glass. Conductivity measurement shows SWNTs can effectively inject charges into the PFO polymer matrix at low voltage. The current versus voltage profile of the SWNT/PFO composite film (2% SWNT in PFO by weight) shows that the majority current conducting is carried by SWNTs.
Background: Though multiple policies have been implemented, the cigarette control in China is still facing a great challenge. At the same time, alcohol drinking has increasingly become a public health problem. Considering cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking often co-occur, a few studies tested the covariance of these phenotypes. However, the genetic and environmental correlation between them among Chinese population has not been determined. The main aim of this study is to fill this gap. Methods: From the Chinese National Twin Registry, we obtained the data on cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors. The ordinal bivariate genetic analysis was performed to fit the categorical variables. After identifying the best decomposition among the Cholesky, common, and independent pathway model, we established the most parsimonious submodel. Results: The correlation between current tobacco and alcohol use could be explained by Cholesky model. The shared environmental variances for both phenotypes were dropped to construct the most parsimonious submodel. Furthermore, the most parsimonious submodel showed a moderate correlation (0.32, 95%CI = 0.17 – 0.46) between the genetic components and a negligible non-shared environmental correlation. Conclusion: As the first bivariate genetic analysis on current tobacco smoking and current alcohol drinking in China, this study suggested a common genetic vulnerability to tobacco and alcohol use in male twins. Further studies should be carried out to track the pertinent genes that are related to the comorbidity of smoking and drinking in Chinese population. Another urgent need is to recognize the behavior-specific environmental risk factors.
Semiconducting hexathiapentacene (HTP) single–crystal nanowires were synthesized using a simple solution-phase route. Quartz Crystal Microbalance and complex resistance measurements were employed to investigate the sensing properties of an HTP nanowire to analytes including acid, amine, and hydrocarbon vapors. Cole-Cole plots (0.01Hz-4 MHz) of measured impedance spectra, modeled using equivalent circuits, were used to resolve the effects of adsorption and charge migration.
Six silver birch (Betula platyphylla) parents of diverse provenances were crossed according to Griffing 4 diallel design, and the plant height and diameter at ground level (DGL) of their F1 progeny were observed. The analysis of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) showed that two phenotypes were simultaneously controlled by additive and non-additive effects. The GCA between two phenotypes in a parent, and GCA of the same phenotype among different parents displayed significant differences: Q2 from Qingyuan was the best of the parents, followed by M2 from Maoer-mountain. On the other hand, the SCA of two phenotypes in a cross and the SCA of a phenotype among different crosses also varied considerably: the cross between E8 from Finland and Q1 from Qingyuan showed the highest SCA of plant height and DGL. The heritability of plant height and diameter at ground level was strong (over 60%), suggesting that these phenotypes can be used for early selection.
Ronnie Vernooy, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Li Xiaoyun, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Xu Xiuli, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Lu Min, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Qi Gubo, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada
The Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars (CNS3) was analyzed. A study of the stellar luminosity function in the solar neighborhood with CNS3 was described. The luminosity function for main sequence stars derived from CNS3 was compared with that from CNS2 and that based on the method of photometric parallaxes. The results from CNS3 for stars with Mv <15.5 were well defined. Luminosity functions for the giants and A, F, G, K and M type main sequence stars are also given, based on CNS3.
The SiO2 films thermally grown on crystalline Si were implanted with Ge ions at 60 keV with doses of l×1015 cm-2 and l×1016 cm-2, followed by thermal annealing at various temperatures. Under an ultraviolet excitation of 240 nm, the films exhibit intense violet luminescence with a peak at 396 nm. This peak is ascribed to the T1 → S0 transition in GeO formed during implantation and annealing. After 1100°C annealing, Ge clusters were formed in an SiO2 matrix and a PL peak at 840 nm, due to the quantum confinement effect, which was measured at low temperature (77 K).
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