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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Children with Down syndrome are at increased risk of respiratory diseases including asthma. Prenatal antibiotic exposure has been shown to be associated with the development of childhood asthma. We aim to estimate the association between prenatal antibiotic exposure and childhood asthma among children with Down syndrome. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mother-child dyads of children with Down syndrome who were born 1995-2013. Both children and mothers were continuously enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid Program (TennCare). Prenatal antibiotic exposure was measured using mother’s prescription fill records. Childhood asthma was defined between age 4.5-6 years by asthma-related healthcare encounters and asthma-specific medication fills. We assessed the association between prenatal antibiotic exposure and childhood asthma among children with Down syndrome using modified Poisson regression adjusting for maternal age, race, residence, education, marital status, smoking during pregnancy, maternal asthma status, delivery method, number of siblings, and children’s sex. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 346 mother-child dyads of children with Down syndrome, 273 (78.9%) children were exposed prenatally to antibiotics and 104 (30.0%) had asthma by age 4.5-6 years. Among those who were exposed to at least one course, the median antibiotic course equaled 2 (interquartile range: 1-4). Prenatal antibiotic exposure was associated with a 20% increase in risk of childhood asthma in the unadjusted analysis (risk ratio [RR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 1.83) and a 26% increase in risk after adjustment (adjusted RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.79, 2.01). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In our study population, the majority of children with Down syndrome were exposed to antibiotics prenatally and the prevalence of asthma was high. Prenatal antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma among children with Down syndrome; however, this increase was not statistically significant.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Nearly half of mothers who report electronic (e)-cigarette use during pregnancy believe e-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional cigarettes. We aim to determine the association of quitting e-cigarette use in pregnancy with the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a cross-sectional study of women participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and with live singleton birth during 2016-2019. Women were classified based on their e-cigarette use: before pregnancy only (quitters), last three months of pregnancy only (initiators), at both times (sustained users), and neither time (non-users). We used a modified Poisson regression to determine the association between quitting e-cigarette use and preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 grams) adjusting for demographic, social-economic, and behavior-related risk factors. Analyses were weighted to account for the survey design and non-response. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Based on 150,950 women who responded to the survey, there were estimated 2.9% quitters, 0.2% initiators, 1.0% sustained users, and 95.9% non-users in the U.S. Compared to sustained e-cigarette users, quitters had a similar risk in preterm birth (adjusted risk ratio [ARR]: 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65, 1.08) and a significantly reduced risk in low birth weight (ARR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.61, 0.97) adjusting for traditional cigarette use, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, family income, prior preterm birth, prior live births, BMI prior to pregnancy, pregnancy weight gain, kotelchuck index, multivitamin use, drinking prior to pregnancy, year of birth, and residential state. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As FDA authorizes the sales of certain e-cigarettes, women smokers may switch to e-cigarettes, believing they are reducing harm. Our study shows that quitting e-cigarette use is associated with a reduction of low birth weight. Clear messaging is needed to help women cease e-cigarette use in pregnancy.
To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS).
The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed.
TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat).
Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively.
Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46–0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35–0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37–0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38–0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44–0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35–45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0–6%)).
The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants.