To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The low masses of irregular galaxies change the behavior of their interstellar medium (ISM) compared to that of normal spirals, so the role of magnetic fields in the ISM in irregulars may be very different than in spirals. We present high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations of the magnetic fields of two irregular galaxies: NGC 4214 and NGC 1569.
An ongoing search for Zeeman splitting in the 1667 MHz OH megamaser emission from luminous star-forming galaxies has yielded numerous detections. These results, in addition to being the first extragalactic measurement of the Zeeman effect in an emission line, suggest that OH megamasers are excellent extragalactic magnetometers. We review the progress of our survey and discuss future observations.
We begin with a brief review of Zeeman-splitting fundamentals and the importance of circular polarization, i.e. Stokes V. We then turn to modern results in several areas, emphasizing the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. The median field in the Cold Neutral Medium is determined from HI absorption lines and is about 6 μG; the magnetic and turbulent pressures are comparable. Using HI emission lines the field has been mapped in several areas: the field reverses across the Orion Molecular Cloud; the 3-d field structure has been determined in the ρ Oph region; and in regions having shock-like morphology the field is generally stronger, strong enough to limit further compression. We briefly present new field measurements for: photo-dissociation regions at the edges of HII regions, determined from carbon recombination lines; Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies, from OH megamasers; and the 3C 286 damped Lyman-α absorption system, determined from the 21-cm line in absorption. We show the sidelobe response of the Green Bank Telescope, which is surprisingly severe and makes the telescope less than optimum for Zeeman-splitting measurements of HI emission lines. Finally, we compare two techniques for determining field strengths, i.e. Zeeman splitting and the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method, and show why the latter usually gives higher field strengths – and sometimes unrealistically high fields.
The magnetic field pervading our Galaxy is a crucial constituent of the interstellar medium: it mediates the dynamics of interstellar clouds, the energy density of cosmic rays, and the formation of stars (Beck 2005). The field associated with ionized interstellar gas has been determined through observations of pulsars in our Galaxy. Radio-frequency measurements of pulse dispersion and the rotation of the plane of linear polarization, i.e., Faraday rotation, yield an average value B ≈ 3 μG (Han et al. 2006). The possible detection of Faraday rotation of linearly polarized photons emitted by high-redshift quasars (Kronberg et al. 2008) suggests similar magnetic fields are present in foreground galaxies with redshifts z > 1. As Faraday rotation alone, however, determines neither the magnitude nor the redshift of the magnetic field, the strength of galactic magnetic fields at redshifts z > 0 remains uncertain.
Here we report a measurement of a magnetic field of B ≈ 84 μG in a galaxy at z =0.692, using the same Zeeman-splitting technique that revealed an average value of B = 6 μG in the neutral interstellar gas of our Galaxy (Heiles et al. 2004). This is unexpected, as the leading theory of magnetic field generation, the mean-field dynamo model, predicts large-scale magnetic fields to be weaker in the past, rather than stronger (Parker 1970).
The full text of this paper was published in Nature (Wolfe et al. 2008).
We detected significant Zeeman splitting in the 1667 MHz OH megamaser emission from four ultraluminous galaxies. These detections, in addition to being the first extragalactic detection of the Zeeman effect in an emission line, suggest that OH megamasers are excellent extragalactic magnetometers.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.