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Social functioning is crucial for daily living and is an essential indicator of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. The pattern of social functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia (i.e. those who are cognitively intact or have mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI)) and its determinants are unclear.
In exploring the heterogeneity of social functioning among patients with Parkinson's disease-associated dementia, we determined the optimal cut-off score of the Parkinson's Disease Social Functioning Scale (PDSFS) for patients with PD-MCI, and the variables influencing patients’ social functioning.
A total of 302 participants underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and PDSFS; 120 patients with Parkinson's disease completed the measurements (MMSE, Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Group comparisons, receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman correlation and multiple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted.
The PD-MCI group scored the lowest on the PDSFS (F = 10.10, P < 0.001). The PDSFS cut-off score was 53 (area under the curve 0.700, sensitivity 0.800, specificity 0.534). The MMSE (β = 0.293, P = 0.002), Activities of Daily Living Scale (β = 0.189, P = 0.028) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (β = −0.216, P = 0.005) scores predicted the PDSFS score. Further, there was an interaction effect between the Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores on the PDSFS score (β = 0.305, P < 0.001).
We determined a PDSFS cut-off score for detecting PD-MCI and found that patients with PD-MCI have social dysfunction. Future research should focus on the effects of neuropsychiatry symptoms and activities of daily living on social functioning, and tailor the intervention programme for patients with Parkinson's disease.
A robot mapping procedure using a modified speeded-up robust feature (SURF) is proposed for building persistent maps with visual landmarks in robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). SURFs are scale-invariant features that automatically recover the scale and orientation of image features in different scenes. However, the SURF method is not originally designed for applications in dynamic environments. The repeatability of the detected SURFs will be reduced owing to the dynamic effect. This study investigated and modified SURF algorithms to improve robustness in representing visual landmarks in robot SLAM systems. Many modifications of the SURF algorithms are proposed in this study including the orientation representation of features, the vector dimension of feature description, and the number of detected features in an image. The concept of sparse representation is also used to describe the environmental map and to reduce the computational complexity when using extended Kalman filter (EKF) for state estimation. Effective procedures of data association and map management for SURFs in SLAM are also designed to improve accuracy in robot state estimation. Experimental works were performed on an actual system with binocular vision sensors to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. The experimental examples include the evaluation of state estimation using EKF SLAM and the implementation of indoor SLAM. In the experiments, the performance of the modified SURF algorithms was compared with the original SURF algorithms. The experimental results confirm that the modified SURF provides better repeatability and better robustness for representing the landmarks in visual SLAM systems.
In this paper, we measured and analyzed the operation lifetime of a high efficiency blue OLED which consists of N,N' –Vdiphenyl -N,N'-bis(1-napthyl) -1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'- diamine (NPB) as the hole-transport layer (HTL), 4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl (DPAVBi) doped in 9,10-bis(2';-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emitting layer (EML), and bis(10-hydroxyben-zo[h]quinolinato)beryllium (Bebq2) as the electron-transport layer (ETL). Due to the high electron mobility of the ETL (one order of magnitude higher than Alq3), the carrier balance is achieved and a blue OLED with a high external quantum efficiency of 8.32% is obtained. The device structure of our blue OLED device is ITO /HTL (40nm)/EML (45nm, 4% dopant)/ETL (15nm)/ LiF(1.2nm)/Al (100nm). In our operation lifetime measurement, we fixed the initial luminescence of the blue OLEDs at 12500, 10000, 7000, 5000 cd/m2 with a constant current driving. The resulting half-lifetime are 5.58, 16.56, 27, 109.819 hours, respectively. To estimate the half-lifetime of this device, we use a well-known relation in our fitting: L*t1/2n= constant where n is the acceleration coefficient, and t1/2 is the half-lifetime. In our blue OLED, the n value is 3.088. By using the equation, we can calculate that the estimated half lifetime at an initial luminance of 1000 cd/m2 achieves 15611 hours in our device. For further investigating the lifetime mechanism in our blue OLED, we fit all the luminance versus time curves obtained under different driving condition. We found that luminance is inversely proportional to the square of the time, rather than a typically stretched exponential decay which means the luminance decay is a second-order reaction in our blue OLED.
In order to establish a material system for packaging 500°C SiC microsystems, aluminum nitride (AlN) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were selected as packaging substrates, and gold (Au) thick-film materials were selected as substrate metallization material for electrical interconnection system (thick-film printed wires and thick-film metallization based wire-bond) and conductive die-attach interlayer. During a 1500-hour test in atmospheric oxygen with and without electrical bias, the electrical resistance of Au thick-film based interconnection system demonstrated low and stable electrical resistance at 500°C. The electrical interconnection system was also tested in extreme dynamic thermal environment. A silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky diode was attached to ceramic substrate using Au thick-film material as the conductive bonding layer and was successfully tested at 500°C in air for more than 1000 hours. In addition to the electrical test of die-attach in static thermal environments, nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) was used for thermal mechanical evaluation and optimization of the die-attach in a wide temperature range.
The Late Yanshanian Orogeny (130-90 Ma) encompasses an important Mesozoic magmatic event in the crustal evolution of SE China. Products of post-orogenic magmatism, widely distributed in the eastern part of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces known as the Southeast Coast Magmatic Belt (SCMB), are dominated by large amounts of slightly Nb and Ta depleted, high-K calc-alkaline granites (I-type) and small amounts of strongly Ba, Sr, Eu, Ti and P depleted, metaluminous granites (A-type). 40Ar/39Ar dating from amphiboles suggests that emplacement of A-type granites mostly postdates (94-90 Ma) the intrusion of voluminous I-type granitoids (110-99 Ma). Using the Al-in-amphibole geobarometer, I-type suites were estimated to have been emplaced at shallow depths (5-7 km). Along with the fact that A-type granites are phyric or miarolitic in texture, it can be concluded that all these post-orogenic suites in the SCMB belong to shallow intrusives. They have also undergone a rapid cooling (higher than 100°C/Ma at T > 300 °C) as indicated by the thermochronology of hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar; therefore, generation of A-type granites from I-type magmas through fractional crystallisation would be a difficult process. Alternatively, their geochemical characteristics are attributed to partial melting in the residual lower crust under an elevated geothermal environment. On the other hand, I-type magmas are considered to be middle-crust-derived melts largely modified with mantle-derived melts that had been depleted with Nb and Ta by earlier tectonic processes. Such a tectonic environment is explained by the underplating of basaltic magmas, most probably due to lithospheric delamination taking place at c. 110 Ma, which marks the beginning of the postorogenic episode in this area. Numerical modelling for a heat source provided by the underplating of basaltic magma supports such a proposition.
For embedded DRAM (E-DRAM) devices with feature sizes of 0.25 µm and beyond, contact processes with low contact resistance and low junction leakage current are required. The contact etch process needs to etch through multi-layer structures with SiO2, SiON/SiN layers and stop on Ti-polycide gate and Ti-salicide active regions at the same time. The key issues include high selectivity to TiSix, vertical profile, complete removal of SiON/SiN cap layer and no polymer residues. In this paper, multi-layer contact etching without attacking TiSix is reported. Using new process chemistry, the new contact etch process has been demonstrated for the manufacturing of 0.25 µm E-DRAM and beyond.
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