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In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
Nanogenerators (NGs) have great potential to solve the problems of energy depletion and environmental pollution. Here, two types of flexible nanogenerators (FNGs) based on graphene oxide (GO) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) are presented. The peak output voltage and current of GO based FNG reached up to 2 V and 30 nA, respectively, under 15 N force at 1 Hz. Moreover, the output voltage could be improved to 34.4 V when the frequency was increased to 10 Hz. It was also found the output voltage increased from 0.1 V to 2.0 V using a released GO structure. The other FNG was made by MW-CNTs mixed with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Its output voltage and power reached up to 7.5 V and 18.75 mW, respectively, which is much larger than that of bare ZnO based FNG. Furthermore, a peak voltage of 30 V could be gained by stamping one’s foot on the FNG. Finally, a modified NG was fabricated using four springs and two flexible layers. As a result, the voltage and power reached up to 9 V and 27mW, respectively. These works may bring out broad applications in energy harvesting.
Two different types of ferroelectric/semiconductor heterostructures, made up of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/ZnO and BiFeO3/ZnO respectively, were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) by sol-gel process. Obvious diodelike behavior were observed in BiFeO3/ZnO heterostructures when current-voltage characteristics were measured, while Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/ZnO heterostructures exhibited a symmetrical behavior. It is found that Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/ZnO heterostructures showed a large polarization and the remnant polarization was approximately 15μC/cm2. The remnant polarization performed a modulation on the channel resistance. The different properties of two heterostructures might lead to different applications.
Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is believed to be the most promising candidate for the next generation non-volatile memory due to its fast access time and low power consumption. Fabrication technologies of FeRAM can be divided into two parts: CMOS technologies for circuits which are standard and can be shared with traditional IC process line, and process relating to ferroelectric which is separated with CMOS process and defined as backend module. This paper described technologies for integrating ferroelectric capacitors into standard CMOS, mainly about modeling of ferroelectric capacitors and backend fabrication technologies. Hysteresis loop of the ferroelectric capacitor is the basis for FeRAM to store data. Models to describe this characteristic are the key for the design of FeRAM. A transient behavioral ferroelectric capacitor model based on C-V relation for circuit simulation is developed. The arc tangent function is used to describe the hysteresis loop. “Negative capacitance” phenomenon at reversing points of applied voltage is analyzed and introduced to the model to describe transient behaviors of the capacitor. Compact equivalent circuits are introduced to integrate this model into HSPICE for circuit simulation. Ferroelectric materials fabrication, electrodes integration and etching are the main technologies of FeRAM fabrication process. An metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process is developed to fabricate high quality Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) films. Pt is known to cause the fatigue problems when used as electrodes with PZT. Ir is used as electrodes to improve the fatigue property of PZT based capacitors, and mechanism of the fatigue is analyzed. Hard mask is used to reduce the size of the capacitors and damage caused in etching process. In our process, Al2O3 is developed as hard mask, which simplifies the FeRAM backend integration process.
To characterise plasma and red-blood-cell (RBC) folate status among pregnant women in an area with an extremely high prevalence of neural tube defects, and to compare them with those of women from a low prevalence area.
A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2003.
One county and one city from each of the high prevalence area and the low prevalence area in China.
Five hundred and sixty-two women in their first trimester of pregnancy in the high prevalence area and 695 pregnant women in the low prevalence area.
Women in the high prevalence area had less than half the plasma and RBC folate concentrations (12.2 and 440.0 nmol l− 1, respectively) of women in the low prevalence area (33.5 and 910.4 nmol l− 1, respectively). In the high prevalence area, 40% of rural women were deficient in RBC folate and 50% were deficient in plasma folate; 20% of urban women were deficient in RBC folate and 30% deficient in plasma folate. In contrast, only 4% (RBC folate) and 6% (plasma folate) of rural women, and 2% (RBC folate) and 1% (plasma folate) of urban women, were folate-deficient in the low prevalence area. Less than 10% of rural and about 26% of urban women in the high prevalence area took folic acid periconceptionally, compared with 70% and 60% of women in the low prevalence area.
Blood folate deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in an area of China with a very high prevalence of neural tube defects.
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