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To analyse differences in the prevalence of prediabetes (PD), undiagnosed diabetes (UDD) and diagnosed diabetes (DD) and associated factors between Brazilian and English older adults.
England and Brazil.
5301 participants of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing study and 1947 participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging study classified as non-diabetics, PD, UDD and DD.
The prevalence of PD, UDD and DD was 48·6, 3 and 9·6 % in England and 33, 6 and 20 % in Brazil. In England, the increase in age, non-white skin colour, smoking, general obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with PD, UDD and DD, whereas hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL levels, hypertension and stroke were associated with UDD and DD. In Brazil, the increase in age was associated with DD and UDD, non-white skin colour and smoking were associated with UDD and abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were associated with all three conditions. CVD in England and schooling in Brazil were associated with PD and DD. A sedentary lifestyle was associated with DD in both samples.
The prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Brazilian sample. Different associated factors were found in the two samples, which may be related to differences in nutritional transition, access to healthcare services and the use of such services.
To assess the role of abdominal obesity in the incidence of disability in older adults living in São Paulo, Brazil, in a 5-year period.
Longitudinal study, part of the SABE Study (Health, Wellbeing and Aging). We assessed the disability incidence in the period (reported difficulty in at least one activity of daily living (ADL) in 2010) in relation to abdominal obesity in 2006 (waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women). We used Poisson regression to evaluate the association between obesity and disability incidence, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors including BMI.
São Paulo, Brazil.
Older adults (n 1109) who were independent in ADL in 2006. In 2010, 789 of these were located and re-interviewed.
The crude disability incidence (at least one ADL) was 27·1/1000 person-years in the period. The incidence rate was two times higher in participants with abdominal obesity compared with those without (39·1/1000 and 19·4/1000 person-years, respectively; P<0·001). This pattern was observed in all BMI levels. In regression models, abdominal obesity remained associated with disability incidence (incidence rate ratio=1·90; P<0·03), even after controlling for BMI, gender, age, low grip strength, cognitive impairment, physical inactivity and chronic diseases.
Abdominal obesity was strong risk factor for disability, showing a more significant effect than BMI, and thus should be an intervention target for older adults. Waist measure is simple, cost-effective and easily interpreted, and therefore can be used in several settings to identify individuals at higher risk of disability.
The number of elderly caregivers is increasing in the world. It is important to know the attitudes toward the elderly, because they can influence a range of behaviors. Our aim was to determine factors associated with attitudes toward the elderly in a sample of older carers.
Three hundred and thirteen elderly caregivers (75.4% women, mean age 69.7 ± 7.1) who cared for a dependent older person at home completed a cross-sectional household interview. In addition to the four domains of the Neri Scale to Assess Attitudes Toward the Elderly, participants were evaluated regarding the demographics, care recipient (CR) characteristics, functional and cognitive status, general health, life satisfaction, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms.
Overall, attitudes toward the elderly were neutral in this sample. More negative attitudes in some Neri Scale domains were associated with being older, living in an urban setting, taking more medications per day, caring for an elderly dependent in basic Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), being “more or less” satisfied with life, and having higher levels of perceived stress. There was a negative association between positive attitudes and educational level.
The results highlight the need for public policies to promote more positive attitudes toward aging and change negative stereotypes usually used to designate older people. These public policies can try to modify some predictors of negative attitudes, such as perceived stress, which was associated with all four domains of Neri Scale.
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between nutritional status and the incidence of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among older adults.
The study is part of the longitudinal SABE (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento; Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) Study that began in 2000 (first wave) with a multistage, clustered, probabilistic sample (n 2143) of older adults (≥60 years). The second wave was carried out in 2006, when 1115 elders were re-interviewed. The dependent variable was the occurrence of disability in 2006 (report of difficulty on ≥1 IADL). Nutritional status (measured at baseline) was classified on the basis of BMI: ≤23·0 kg/m2 (underweight); >23·0 and <28·0 kg/m2 (ideal range – reference); ≥28·0 and <30·0 kg/m2 (overweight); and ≥30·0 kg/m2 (obesity).
São Paulo, Brazil.
One thousand and thirty-four individuals without difficulties regarding IADL in 2000 were selected, 611 of whom were re-interviewed in 2006.
In the multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for baseline variables (gender, age, number of chronic diseases, stroke, osteoarthritis and cognitive status), underweight (OR = 2·03; P = 0·034) and obesity (OR = 1·79; P = 0·022) remained associated with disability.
Both underweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of developing disability regarding IADL among older adults, in an independent fashion of other risk factors. Thus, adequate nutritional status is a key point to consider in the establishment of preventive measures.
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