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Objectives: Studies have revealed that a relatively high incidence of severe infection and mortality in COVID-19 patients is attributed to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We implemented a study in 2 field hospitals dedicated to COVID-19 treatment in Da Nang, Vietnam (July–August 2020), and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (August–October 2021), to identify pathogens, risk factors, and outcomes associated with HAIs. Methods: We applied a prospective study tool to estimate HAI incidence among 1,454 patients. HAIs are diagnosed and ascertained using surveillance criteria established by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 for at least 2 days were enrolled in this assessment of HAI risks, pathogens, and outcomes. Results: Among 1,454 sampled patients, 391 patients had 423 HAIs (27.1%). The highest proportion occurred in ICUs, with 422 HAI patients (34.1%). Pneumonia (n = 331, 78.3%) and bloodstream infections (n = 55, 13.1%) were the most common HAIs. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumonia (27.9%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (25.3%), were the most commonly isolated organisms. Ventilators and central venous catheters were independently associated with HAIs. Regarding the mortality rates, 55% of deaths occurred in intensive care units. Patients with HAIs (70.3%) were twice as likely to die compared to patients without HAIs (38.8%). HAIs leading to septic shock caused almost triple mortality (n = 58, 90.6%) compared with non-HAI patients (n = 412, 38.8%). HAIs prolonged hospital stay: 24.7 days for patients with HAIs and 19.1 days for patients without HAIs (P < .001). Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19–related critical illnesses are at high risk of HAIs from multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. HAIs prolong hospitalization, whereas HAIs with septic shock almost tripled mortality. Guidelines and procedures to prevent and control HAIs caused by MDR bacteria as well as training and monitoring on aseptic-compliant techniques during invasive clinical procedures are needed.
Efficient emergency and disaster response is challenged by environmental conditions exceeding test reagent storage and operating specifications. We assessed the effectiveness of vial and foil packaging in preserving point-of-care (POC) glucose and lactate test strip performance in humid conditions.
Glucose and lactate test strips in both packaging were exposed to mean relative humidity of 97.0 ± 1.1% in an environmental chamber for up to 168 hours. At defined time points, stressed strips were removed and tested in pairs with unstressed strips using whole blood samples spiked to glucose concentrations of 60, 100, and 250 mg/dL (n = 20 paired measurements per level). A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare stressed and unstressed test strip measurements.
Stressed glucose and lactate test strip measurements differed significantly from unstressed strips, and were inconsistent between experimental trials. Median glucose paired difference was as high as 12.5 mg/dL at the high glucose test concentration. Median lactate bias was −0.2 mmol/L. Stressed strips from vial (3) and foil (7) packaging failed to produce results.
Both packaging designs appeared to protect glucose and lactate test strips for at least 1 week of high humidity stress. Documented strip failures revealed the need for improved manufacturing process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1–7)
Of 33,111 patients admitted to a large hospital in Vietnam from November 2000 through July 2001, a total of 303 were undergoing hemodialysis and had pyrogenic reactions (ie, fever and/or rigors). Ten case patients (3.3%) had documented bacteremia; pathogens were largely waterborne microorganisms. Pyrogenic reactions in case patients might have occurred because of suboptimal water quality or inadequate dialyzer reprocessing procedures.
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