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Patients with psychiatric disorders are exposed to high risk of COVID-19 and increased mortality. In this study, we set out to assess the clinical features and outcomes of patients with current psychiatric disorders exposed to COVID-19.
This multi-center prospective study was conducted in 22 psychiatric wards dedicated to COVID-19 inpatients between 28 February and 30 May 2020. The main outcomes were the number of patients transferred to somatic care units, the number of deaths, and the number of patients developing a confusional state. The risk factors of confusional state and transfer to somatic care units were assessed by a multivariate logistic model. The risk of death was analyzed by a univariate analysis.
In total, 350 patients were included in the study. Overall, 24 (7%) were transferred to medicine units, 7 (2%) died, and 51 (15%) patients presented a confusional state. Severe respiratory symptoms predicted the transfer to a medicine unit [odds ratio (OR) 17.1; confidence interval (CI) 4.9–59.3]. Older age, an organic mental disorder, a confusional state, and severe respiratory symptoms predicted mortality in univariate analysis. Age >55 (OR 4.9; CI 2.1–11.4), an affective disorder (OR 4.1; CI 1.6–10.9), and severe respiratory symptoms (OR 4.6; CI 2.2–9.7) predicted a higher risk, whereas smoking (OR 0.3; CI 0.1–0.9) predicted a lower risk of a confusional state.
COVID-19 patients with severe psychiatric disorders have multiple somatic comorbidities and have a risk of developing a confusional state. These data underline the need for extreme caution given the risks of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized for psychiatric disorders.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.
A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March–May 2016 and followed up March–May 2017.
HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.
In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9–53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0–28.6 n = 16) was observed.
HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
The systems ecology paradigm (SEP) emerged in the late 1960s at a time when societies throughout the world were beginning to recognize that our environment and natural resources were being threatened by their activities. Management practices in rangelands, forests, agricultural lands, wetlands, and waterways were inadequate to meet the challenges of deteriorating environments, many of which were caused by the practices themselves. Scientists recognized an immediate need was developing a knowledge base about how ecosystems function. That effort took nearly two decades (1980s) and concluded with the acceptance that humans were components of ecosystems, not just controllers and manipulators of lands and waters. While ecosystem science was being developed, management options based on ecosystem science were shifting dramatically toward practices supporting sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and local to global interconnections of ecosystems. Emerging from the new knowledge about how ecosystems function and the application of the systems ecology approach was the collaboration of scientists, managers, decision-makers, and stakeholders locally and globally. Today’s concepts of ecosystem management and related ideas, such as sustainable agriculture, ecosystem health and restoration, consequences of and adaptation to climate change, and many other important local to global challenges are a direct result of the SEP.
Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
Systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure is important in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Predictors of an elevated systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure prior to bidirectional Glenn operation have been incompletely identified.
All patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn operation operation at our centre between January 2007 and March 2017 were retrospectively identified and patient variables were extracted. For patients who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of this study, post-Fontan patient variables were also extracted.
One-hundred patients were included with a median age at pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation of 4.5 months. In total, 71 (71%) patients had a systemic right ventricle. At the pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation, the mean systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher amongst those with systemic right ventricle compared to left ventricle (9.1 mmHg ± 2.1 versus 7.7 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). On univariate analysis, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01), history of recoarctation (p = 0.03), history of Norwood operation (p = 0.04), and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01) and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). Amongst those who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of study (n = 49), those with a higher pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure were more likely to have experienced death, transplantation, or listed for transplantation (p = 0.02) and more likely to have had heart failure symptoms (p = 0.04) at a mean time from Fontan of 5.2 years ± 1.3.
In patients undergoing bidirectional Glenn operation operation, the volume-loaded, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation state may expose diastolic dysfunction that has prognostic value.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Improved non-biased matching of clinical research professionals to PI needs will accelerate time to active project engagement for new hires. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: An ongoing challenge for HR recruiters when matching applicants to open job positions is the time-consuming screening effort, which relies on imprecise semantic searching. We propose building a precision-based matching tool using Natural Language Processing to automate the accurate and non-biased identification of suitable job candidates. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted 30-45’ interviews with HR administration/recruitment specialists to delineate the recruitment and hiring process used to match CRC resumes to job descriptions (n=7). Next, CRC applicant resumes were evaluated by experts, first by independent review, followed by consensus and assignment of a final rating, 0= not qualified; 1= CRC1; 2= CRC2; 3= CRC3; 4= CRC4. Guidelines evolved after reviewing 6 batches of 50 unique resumes (300 total) and were based on applicant qualifications & experiences by job level, CRC 1-4. Using final guidelines an additional 3,145 resumes were rated. For uniform input into the NLP model, resume formats were converted and text contents extracted into multiple sections, i.e., education, professional experiences, etc. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Guideline development: Rater agreement improved over time with poor agreement when no guidelines were present (.161- Kappa) to good agreement for final guidelines (.608- Kappa). Spearman’s rho correlation between guideline iterations and Kappa is large and positive (rho 0.886) indicating significant rater agreement. NLP Model: Resume to job description matching indicated a third of applications were qualified, a third overqualified, and a third underqualified, suggesting the majority of applicants were unable to identify their ‘best fit’ by job level. Our NLP model matched the candidate resume to CRC level with 73.3% accuracy; and achieved 79.2% accuracy when matching the applicant resume to the CRC job description. Refinement of the NLP Model is ongoing. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: A precision-based NLP matching tool will improve applicant targeting for the hire of great, qualified candidates. Improved applicant to job matching offers several advantages, i.e., reduced bias with greater diversity and inclusion; reduced time-to-hire; ability to anticipate training needs; and a reduced time to active project engagement.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Measuring and analyzing qualitative and quantitative traits using phenomics approaches will yield previously unrecognized heart failure subphenotypes and has the potential to improve our knowledge of heart failure pathophysiology, identify novel biomarkers of disease, and guide the development of targeted therapeutics for heart failure. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Current classification schemes fail to capture the broader pathophysiologic heterogeneity in heart failure. Phenomics offers a newer unbiased approach to identify subtypes of complex disease syndromes, like heart failure. The goal of this research is to use data-driven associations to redefine the classification of the heart failure syndrome. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will identify < 10 subphenotypes of patients with heart failure using unsupervised machine learning approaches for dense multidimensional quantitative (i.e. demographics, comorbid conditions, physiologic measurements, clinical laboratory, imaging, and medication variables; disease diagnosis, procedure, and billing codes) and qualitative data extracted from an integrated health system electronic health record. The heart failure subphenotypes we identify from the integrated health system electronic health record will be replicated in other heart failure population datasets using unsupervised learning approaches. We will explore the potential to establish associations between identified subphenotypes and clinical outcomes (e.g. all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to identify < 10 mutually exclusive phenogroups of patients with heart failure that have differential risk profiles and clinical trajectories. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We will attempt to derive and validate a data-driven unbiased approach to the categorization of novel phenogroups in heart failure. This has the potential to improve our knowledge of heart failure pathophysiology, identify novel biomarkers of disease, and guide the development of targeted therapeutics for heart failure.
An increasing number of unexpectedly diverse benthic communities are being reported from microbially precipitated carbonate facies in shallow-marine platform settings after the end-Permian mass extinction. Ostracoda, which was one of the most diverse and abundant metazoan groups during this interval, recorded its greatest diversity and abundance associated with these facies. Previous studies, however, focused mainly on taxonomic diversity and, therefore, left room for discussion of paleoecological significance. Here, we apply a morphometric method (semilandmarks) to investigate morphological variance through time to better understand the ecological consequences of the end-Permian mass extinction and to examine the hypothesis that microbial mats played a key role in ostracod survival. Our results show that taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity were decoupled during the end-Permian extinction and that morphological disparity declined rapidly at the onset of the end-Permian extinction, even though the high diversity of ostracods initially survived in some places. The decoupled changes in taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity suggest that the latter is a more robust proxy for understanding the ecological impact of the extinction event, and the low morphological disparity of ostracod faunas is a consequence of sustained environmental stress or a delayed post-Permian radiation. Furthermore, the similar morphological disparity of ostracods between microbialite and non-microbialite facies indicates that microbial mats most likely represent a taphonomic window rather than a biological refuge during the end-Permian extinction interval.
During the Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment (EVT) of Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE) trial, patient-level micro-costing data were collected. We report a cost-effectiveness analysis of EVT, using ESCAPE trial data and Markov simulation, from a universal, single-payer system using a societal perspective over a patient’s lifetime.
Primary data collection alongside the ESCAPE trial provided a 3-month trial-specific, non-model, based cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A Markov model utilizing ongoing lifetime costs and life expectancy from the literature was built to simulate the cost per QALY adopting a lifetime horizon. Health states were defined using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Uncertainty was explored using scenario analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
The 3-month trial-based analysis resulted in a cost per QALY of $201,243 of EVT compared to the best standard of care. In the model-based analysis, using a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, EVT dominated the standard of care; EVT was both more effective and less costly than the standard of care (−$91). When the time horizon was shortened to 1 year, EVT remains cost savings compared to standard of care (∼$15,376 per QALY gained with EVT). However, if the estimate of clinical effectiveness is 4% less than that demonstrated in ESCAPE, EVT is no longer cost savings compared to standard of care.
Results support the adoption of EVT as a treatment option for acute ischemic stroke, as the increase in costs associated with caring for EVT patients was recouped within the first year of stroke, and continued to provide cost savings over a patient’s lifetime.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Philosophers, archeologists, and other heritage professionals often take a rather negative view of heritage reconstruction, holding that it is inappropriate or even impermissible. In this essay, we argue that taking such hardline attitudes toward the reconstruction of heritage is unjustified. To the contrary, we believe that the reconstruction of heritage can be both permissible and beneficial, all things considered. In other words, sometimes we have good reasons, on balance, to pursue reconstructions, and doing so can be morally acceptable. In defending this claim, we discern a number of arguments made against heritage reconstruction and demonstrate that these arguments are either exaggerated or lack support.
Recent studies suggest that close-range blast exposure (CBE), regardless of acute concussive symptoms, may have negative long-term effects on brain health and cognition; however, these effects are highly variable across individuals. One potential genetic risk factor that may impact recovery and explain the heterogeneity of blast injury’s long-term cognitive outcomes is the inheritance of an apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, a well-known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that APOE ε4 carrier status would moderate the impact of CBE on long-term cognitive outcomes.
To test this hypothesis, we examined 488 post-9/11 veterans who completed assessments of neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric diagnoses, history of blast exposure, military and non-military mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs), and available APOE genotypes. We separately examined the effects of CBE on attention, memory, and executive functioning in individuals with and without the APOE ε4 allele.
As predicted, we observed a differential impact of CBE status on cognition as a function of APOE ε4 status, in which CBE ε4 carriers displayed significantly worse neuropsychological performance, specifically in the domain of memory. These results persisted after adjusting for clinical, demographic, and genetic factors and were not observed when examining other neurotrauma variables (i.e., lifetime or military mTBI, distant blast exposure), though these variables displayed similar trends.
These results suggest APOE ε4 carriers are more vulnerable to the impact of CBE on cognition and highlight the importance of considering genetic risk when studying cognitive effects of neurotrauma.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Hyperprolific sows rear more piglets than they have teats, and to accommodate this, milk replacers are often offered as a supplement. Milk replacers are based on bovine milk, yet components of vegetable origin are often added. This may reduce growth, but could also accelerate maturational changes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding piglets a milk replacer with gradually increasing levels of wheat flour on growth, gut enzyme activity and immune function compared with a diet based entirely on bovine milk. The hypothesis tested was that adding a starch component (wheat flour) induces maturation of the mucosa as measured by higher digestive activity and improved integrity and immunity of the small intestines (SI). To test this hypothesis, piglets were removed from the sow at day 3 and fed either a pure milk replacer diet (MILK) or from day 11 a milk replacer diet with increasing levels of wheat (WHEAT). The WHEAT piglets had an increased enzyme activity of maltase and sucrase in the proximal part of the SI compared with the MILK group. There were no differences in gut morphology, histopathology and gene expression between the groups. In conclusion, the pigs given a milk replacer with added wheat displayed immunological and gut mucosal enzyme maturational changes, indicatory of adaptation towards a vegetable-based diet. This was not associated with any clinical complications, and future studies are needed to show whether this could improve responses in the subsequent weaning process.
Over the last two decades, heart centres have developed strategies to meet the neurodevelopmental needs of children with congenital heart disease. Since the publication of guidelines in 2012, cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up programmes have become more widespread. Local neurodevelopmental programmes, however, have been developed independently in widely varying environments. We sought to characterise variation in structure and personnel in cardiac neurodevelopmental programmes. A 31-item survey was sent to all member institutions of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative. Multidisciplinary teams at each centre completed the survey. Responses were compiled in a descriptive fashion. Of the 29 invited centres, 23 responded to the survey (79%). Centres reported more anticipated neurodevelopment visits between birth and 5 years of age (median 5, range 2–8) than 5–18 years (median 2, range 0–10) with 53% of centres lacking any standard for routine neurodevelopment evaluations after 5 years of age. Estimated annual neurodevelopment clinic volume ranged from 85 to 428 visits with a median of 16% of visits involving children >5 years of age. Among responding centres, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence were the most routinely used tests. Neonatal clinical assessment was more common (64%) than routine neonatal brain imaging (23%) during hospitalisation. In response to clinical need and published guidelines, centres have established formal cardiac neurodevelopment follow-up programmes. Centres vary considerably in their approaches to routine screening and objective testing, with many centres currently focussing their resources on evaluating younger patients.
Background: The CDC has performed surveillance for invasive Staphylococcus aureus (iSA) infections through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) since 2004. SCCmec and spa typing for clonal complex (CC) assignment and genomic markers have been used to characterize isolates. In 2019, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of isolates began, allowing for high-resolution assessment of genomic diversity. Here, we evaluate the reliability of SCCmec typing, spa typing, and CC assignment using WGS data compared to traditional methods to ensure that backwards compatibility is maintained. Methods:S. aureus isolates were obtained from a convenience sample of iSA cases reported through the EIP surveillance system. Overall, 78 iSA isolates with diverse spa repeat patterns, CCs, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were sequenced (MiSeq, Illumina). Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used as the SCCmec and spa typing reference methods, respectively. spa-MLST mapping (Ridom SpaServer) served as the reference method for CC assignment. WGS assembly and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed using the CDC QuAISAR-H pipeline. WGS-based MLST CCs were assigned using eBURST and SCCmec types using SCCmecFinder. spa types were assigned from WGS assemblies using BioNumerics. For isolate subtyping, previously published and validated canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs) as well as the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) virulence factor were assessed for all genome assemblies. Results: All isolates were assigned WGS-based spa types, which were 100% concordant (78 of 78) with Sanger-based spa typing. SCCmecFinder assigned 91% of isolates (71 of 78) SCCmec types, which were 100% concordant with reference method results. Also, 7 isolates had multiple cassettes predicted or an incomplete SCCmec region assembly. Using WGS data, 96% (75 of 78) of isolates were assigned CCs; 3 isolates had unknown sequence types that were single-locus variants of established sequence types. Overall, 70 isolates had CCs assigned by the reference method; 100% (70 of 70) concordance was observed with WGS-based CCs. Analysis of canSNPs placed 42% (33 of 78) of isolates into CC8, with 17 (52%) of these isolates classified as USA300. PVL and ACME were not accurate markers for inferring the USA300 subtype as 24% (4 of 17) of isolates did not contain these markers. Conclusions:S. aureus CCs, SCCmec, and spa types can be reliably determined using WGS. Incorporation of canSNP analysis represents a more efficient method for CC8 assignment than the use of genomic markers alone. WGS allows for the replacement of multiple typing methods for increased laboratory efficiency, while maintaining backward compatibility with historical typing nomenclature.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
The relationship between mind, body, and spirit has inspired philosophers, artists, physicians, and scientists for centuries. Daring to reach for our dreams yet fearing to lose that which we have fought so hard to attain, the tools developed to navigate the human condition have pushed the limits of technological advancement. Although the landscape and its demands will continue to evolve, a common thread throughout time is humanity’s desire to reach its potential, to function at peak capacity. This guiding light has led to the development of medicine, which has been utilized as a means by which to save the fragile yet resilient corporeal form, as well as an instrument to transcend its bounds. Medicine as an art involves the use of wide-ranging modalities, including pharmaceuticals. Experiencing health in all meanings of the word involves the absence of illness, as well as the optimization of health.
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.