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Burial mounds piled high with enemy corpses are well known in Mesopotamian inscriptions as symbols of victory, but no archaeological examples have so far been recovered. Archaeological investigations of a tall mound adjacent to the site of Tell Banat in Syria have revealed an unusual, late third-millennium BC mortuary population, dominated by adult and sub-adult males. The systematic placement of these human remains and associated assemblages suggests that, rather than containing enemy combatants, this was a memorial to a community's battle dead. The authors propose that the deceased belonged to an organised army, with broader implications for state administration and the adherence or resistance to a new regime fostered by such monumentalisation.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
The Khao Wong Prachan Valley of central Thailand is one of four known prehistoric loci of copper mining, smelting and casting in Southeast Asia. Many radiocarbon determinations from bronze-consumption sites in north-east Thailand date the earliest copper-base metallurgy there in the late second millennium BC. By applying kernel density estimation analysis to approximately 100 new AMS radiocarbon dates, the authors conclude that the valley's first Neolithic millet farmers had settled there by c. 2000 BC, and initial copper mining and rudimentary smelting began in the late second millennium BC. This overlaps with the established dates for Southeast Asian metal-consumption sites, and provides an important new insight into the development of metallurgy in central Thailand and beyond.
In prehistoric coastal and western-central Thailand, rice was the dominant cultivar. In eastern-central Thailand, however, the first known farmers cultivated millet. Using one of the largest collections of archaeobotanical material in Southeast Asia, this article examines how cropping systems were adapted as domesticates were introduced into eastern-central Thailand. The authors argue that millet reached the region first, to be progressively replaced by rice, possibly due to climatic pressures. But despite the increasing importance of rice, dryland, rain-fed cultivation persisted throughout ancient central Thailand, a result that contributes to refining understanding of the development of farming in Southeast Asia.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To study the biology of Phosholamban (PLN) in a human relevant model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: State of the art stem-cell technologies using iPSC-CMs derived from carriers of a lethal PLN mutation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary data demonstrate that this particular PLN mutation (L39) results in reduced expression and mis-localization of PLN as well as increased incidence of early after depolarization in isolated iPSC-CMs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Phospholamban (PLN) is a critical regulator of Ca++ homeostasis yet many uncertainties still remain regarding its role in humans. Our study will provide unique insights into the pathophysiology of this protein in HF.
In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) image data of ore particle systems is investigated. By combining X-ray microtomography with scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based image analysis, additional information about the mineralogical composition from certain planar sections can be gained. For the analysis of tomographic images of particle systems the extraction of single particles is essential. This is performed with a marker-based watershed algorithm and a post-processing step utilizing a neural network to reduce oversegmentation. The results are validated by comparing the 3D particle-wise segmentation empirically with 2D SEM images, which have been obtained with a different imaging process and segmentation algorithm. Finally, a stereological application is shown, in which planar SEM images are embedded into the tomographic 3D image. This allows the estimation of local X-ray attenuation coefficients, which are material-specific quantities, in the entire tomographic image.
This study investigates the ternary intermetallic phases in the Mg–Zn–Ca system, which is of great interest for metallic biodegradable implant applications. According to published phase diagrams, the key alloy composition studied herein is located within the Ca2Mg5Zn5, Ca2Mg6Zn3, and IM1 phase fields. Through controlled cooling of the melt, a quasibinary ∼Ca2Mg5Zn5–Mg microstructure was obtained. The large polygonal grains had a composition of Ca2Mg5Zn5 as determined by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that Ca2Mg5Zn5 begins to form at ∼417 °C, and the eutectic temperature is ∼369 °C. Based on single-crystal x-ray diffraction data, Ca2Mg5Zn5 was determined to be hexagonal (P63/mmc), with lattice parameters of a = 9.5949(3) Å and c = 10.0344(3) Å. This was also verified by transmission electron microscopy. Further refinements, which considered the possibility of mixed Mg/Zn sites, significantly improved the data fit compared to the initial ordered structural model. The final refined structure possesses a composition of Ca16Mg42Zn42, very similar to the chemical analysis results from EDX.
Si is a promising anode material for Li storage due to its high theoretical specific capacity surpassing 4200 Ah/kg. Si based anodes exhibit an extreme instability upon electrochemical incorporation of Li given the accompanied large volume expansion of about 400%. We show innovative anode assemblies composed of a forest of free standing Si nanowires conformally integrated on carbon meshes. The morphology of silicon nanowires allows a volume expansion and compression lowering strain incorporation. In this paper, we demonstrate the utilization of SiNW grown on top of a current collector made of a carbon fiber network. This leads to an increase of stability of Si with a remaining effective capacitance above 2000 Ah/kg(Si) after 225 full charge/discharge cycles. This is significantly better compared to previous results shown in literature. The anodes are fabricated by a simple and inexpensive method promising for a transfer into industrial integration.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.