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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reduced life expectancy in patients with affective disorders, however, whether MetS also plays a role before the onset of affective disorder is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether MetS, inflammatory markers or oxidative stress act as risk factors for affective disorders, and whether MetS is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress.
We conducted a high-risk study including 204 monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission or partial remission (affected), their unaffected co-twins (high-risk) and twins with no personal or family history of affective disorder (low-risk). Metabolic Syndrome was ascertained according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Inflammatory markers and markers of oxidative stress were analyzed from fasting blood and urine samples, respectively.
The affected and the high-risk group had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS compared to the low-risk group (20% v. 15% v. 2.5%, p = 0.0006), even after adjusting for sex, age, smoking and alcohol consumption. No differences in inflammatory and oxidative markers were seen between the three groups. Further, MetS was associated with alterations in inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress was modestly correlated with inflammation.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with low-grade inflammation and may act as a risk factor and a trait marker for affective disorders. If confirmed in longitudinal studies, this suggests the importance of early intervention and preventive approaches targeted towards unhealthy lifestyle factors that may contribute to later psychopathology.
This paper discusses a simple extension of the classical Voronoi tessellation. Instead of using the Euclidean distance to decide the domains corresponding to the cell centers, another translation-invariant distance is used. The resulting tessellation is a scaled version of the usual Voronoi tessellation. Formulas for the mean characteristics (e.g. mean perimeter, surface and volume) of the cells are provided in the case of cell centers from a homogeneous Poisson process. The resulting tessellation is stationary and ergodic but not isotropic.
In this paper we obtain a new crossing result for Brownian motion. The boundary studied is a piecewise linear function consisting of two lines. The expression obtained for the boundary crossing probability is of a simple directly computable form.
We construct a risk process, where the law of the next jump time or jump size can depend on the past through earlier jump times and jump sizes. Some distributional properties of this process are established. The compensator is found and some martingale properties are discussed.
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