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An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars
Autonomic denervation has been assumed to persist after orthotopic heart transplantation. Analyzing spontaneous and induced variations of heart rate, the status of autonomic cardiac innervation was investigated in six children 19–37 months after cardiac transplantation. The age at the time of transplantation varied from three weeks to 15.4 years. Heart rate variability was assessed on 24-hour Holter recordings by calculating time-domain indices (standard deviation of all RR intervals; standard deviation of the mean RR intervals from successive five-minute periods; mean of the standard deviations of RR intervals from successive five-minute periods; proportion of adjacent RR intervals > 50 msec different; square root of mean square successive differences in RR intervals) and frequency-domain variables (low frequency power, high frequency power and total spectrum power). Sinus node recovery time, sinoatrial conduction time and post-pacing cycle lengths were examined at different rates of endocardial atrial pacing. After the first year subsequent to transplantation, standard deviation of the mean RR intervals reached the normal range in four patients, whereas the other time-domain variables became normal in two patients. Both patients displayed normal or near-normal power spectrums of heart rate with normal day-to-night variations. For the remaining patients, spectrums of heart rate failed to show the main frequency peaks. Only the patient with normal variability in heart rate exhibited a decrease in corrected sinus node recovery time at higher stimulation rates, shortening of the first recovery cycle below the pre-pacing level, and a rapid decline of the accelerated post-pacing heart rate as described in innervated hearts. These results suggest the evolution of time-dependent efferent autonomic reinnervation after cardiac transplantation in children.
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