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Applying a coastal-geoarchaeological approach, we synthesize stratigraphic, sedimentological, mollusk-zooarchaeological, and radiometric datasets from recent excavations and sediment coring at Harbor Key (8MA15)—a shell-terraformed Native mound complex within Tampa Bay, on the central peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida. We significantly revise the chronological understanding of the site and place it among the relatively few early civic-ceremonial centers in the region. Analyses of submound contexts revealed that the early first millennium mound center was constructed atop a platform of sand and ex situ cultural shell deposits that were reworked during ancient storm landfalls around 2000 BP. We situate Harbor Key within a seascape-scale stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental framework and show that the shellworks comprise an artificial barrier protecting the leeward estuary basin (and productive inshore wetlands) from high-energy conditions of the open bay and swells from the Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary and archaeological records attest to the long-term history of morphodynamic interaction between coastal processes and Indigenous shell terraforming in the region and suggest that early first millennium mound building in Tampa Bay was tied to the recognition and reuse of antecedent shellworks and the persistent management of encompassing cultural seascapes.
Psychiatric disorders are highly polygenic and show patterns of partner resemblance. Partner resemblance has direct population-level genetic implications if it is caused by assortative mating, but not if it is caused by convergence or social homogamy. Using genetics may help distinguish these different mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether partner resemblance for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is influenced by assortative mating using polygenic risk scores (PRSs).
PRSs from The Danish High-Risk and Resilience Study—VIA 7 were compared between parents in three subsamples: population-based control parent pairs (N=198), parent pairs where at least one parent had schizophrenia (N=193), and parent pairs where at least one parent had bipolar disorder (N=115).
The PRS for schizophrenia was predictive of schizophrenia in the full sample and showed a significant correlation between parent pairs (r=0.121, p=0.0440), indicative of assortative mating. The PRS for bipolar disorder was also correlated between parent pairs (r=0.162, p=0.0067), but it was not predictive of bipolar disorder in the full sample, limiting the interpretation.
Our study provides genetic evidence for assortative mating for schizophrenia, with important implications for our understanding of the genetics of schizophrenia.
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in millions of deaths worldwide and is considered a significant mass-casualty disaster (MCD). The surge of patients and scarcity of resources negatively impacted hospitals, patients and medical practice. We hypothesized ICUs during this MCD had a higher acuity of illness, and subsequently had increased lengths of stay (LOS), complication rates, death rates and costs of care. The purpose of this study was to investigate those outcomes.
This was a multicenter, retrospective study that compared intensive care admissions in 2020 to those in 2019 to evaluate patient outcomes and cost of care. Data were obtained from the Vizient Clinical Data Base/Resource Manager (Vizient Inc., Irvine, Texas, USA).
Data included the number of ICU admissions, patient outcomes, case mix index and summary of cost reports. Quality outcomes were also collected, and a total of 1304981 patients from 333 hospitals were included. For all medical centers, there was a significant increase in LOS index, ICU LOS, complication rate, case mix index, total cost, and direct cost index.
The MCD caused by COVID-19 was associated with increased adverse outcomes and cost-of-care for ICU patients.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity that typically develops after the administration of infant formula, suggesting a link between nutritional components and disease development. One of the most significant complications that develops in patients with NEC is severe lung injury. We have previously shown that the administration of a nutritional formula that is enriched in pre-digested Triacylglyceride that do not require lipase action can significantly reduce the severity of NEC in a mouse model. We now hypothesise that this ‘pre-digested fat (PDF) system’ may reduce NEC-associated lung injury. In support of this hypothesis, we now show that rearing newborn mice on a nutritional formula based on the ‘PDF system’ promotes lung development, as evidenced by increased tight junctions and surfactant protein expression. Mice that were administered this ‘PDF system’ were significantly less vulnerable to the development of NEC-induced lung inflammation, and the administration of the ‘PDF system’ conferred lung protection. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, the administration of the ‘PDF system’ significantly enhanced lung maturation and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that the PDF system protects the development of NEC-induced lung injury through effects on lung maturation and reduced ROS in the lung and also increases lung maturation in non-NEC mice.
To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40–59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994.
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
Single-particle reconstruction can be used to perform three-dimensional (3D) imaging of homogeneous populations of nano-sized objects, in particular viruses and proteins. Here, it is demonstrated that it can also be used to obtain 3D reconstructions of heterogeneous populations of inorganic nanoparticles. An automated acquisition scheme in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to collect images of thousands of nanoparticles. Particle images are subsequently semi-automatically clustered in terms of their properties and separate 3D reconstructions are performed from selected particle image clusters. The result is a 3D dataset that is representative of the full population. The study demonstrates a methodology that allows 3D imaging and analysis of inorganic nanoparticles in a fully automated manner that is truly representative of large particle populations.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Early age at menopause has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease; however, there is limited evidence for a relationship between early menopause and heart failure (HF). We examined whether early menopause is associated with incident HF among women in the southeastern United States. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Southern Community Cohort Study enrolled ~86,000 low-income black and white adults from 2002 to 2009. Participants for this analysis were 11,948 women who were postmenopausal at enrollment, had no history of HF, and were on Medicaid or Medicare. HF events were ascertained using ICD-9 codes 428.x via linkage of the cohort with CMS Research Identifiable Files through December 31, 2010. Early menopause was defined as self-reported age at menopause less than 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from multivariable Cox regression models, overall and by race, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive factors, including reason for menopause. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 58±9 years, and 65% of participants were black. Among women with early menopause, 76% (n = 4,836) had menopause due to hysterectomy or oophorectomy. In women with later menopause, 74% (n = 4,102) reported natural menopause. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years (range 3.1-6.7), 2,157 incident HF events occurred. Compared with women with later onset of menopause, those with early menopause had increased HF risk (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.10–1.47). Risk of HF associated with early menopause was similar in white and black women (p-value for interaction: 0.13). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this largely low-income population, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of developing HF. Women with early menopause represent a potential target population for future interventions to decrease risk of HF and cardiovascular risk factors.
The National Cryo-Electron Microscopy Facility (NCEF) at the National Cancer Institute was launched in May of 2017 to provide free and rapid access to high-resolution cryo-EM data collection to United States researchers working on problems of broad general relevance to cancer biology. The decision about suitability of projects for data collection is made on a first-come, first-served basis by NCEF staff and is based solely on the quality of the screening images provided, without need for a scientific proposal. Here we provide an overview of the operation of the facility, typical data collection procedures, and some insights that have emerged from the structures reported from data collected at the facility.
Normal odd-chain SFA (OCSFA), particularly tridecanoic acid (n-13 : 0), pentadecanoic acid (n-15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (n-17 : 0), are normal components of dairy products, beef and seafood. The ratio of n-15 : 0:n-17 : 0 in ruminant foods (dairy products and beef) is 2:1, while in seafood and human tissues it is 1:2, and their appearance in plasma is often used as a marker for ruminant fat intake. Human elongases encoded by elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)1, ELOVL3, ELOVL6 and ELOVL7 catalyse biosynthesis of the dominant even-chain SFA; however, there are no reports of elongase function on OCSFA. ELOVL transfected MCF7 cells were treated with n-13 : 0, n-15 : 0 or n-17 : 0 (80 µm) and products analysed. ELOVL6 catalysed elongation of n-13 : 0→n-15 : 0 and n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0; and ELOVL7 had modest activity toward n-15 : 0 (n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0). No elongation activity was detected for n-17 : 0→n-19 : 0. Our data expand ELOVL specificity to OCSFA, providing the first molecular evidence demonstrating ELOVL6 as the major elongase acting on OCSFA n-13 : 0 and n-15 : 0 fatty acids. Studies of food intake relying on OCSFA as a biomarker should consider endogenous human metabolism when relying on OCSFA ratios to indicate specific food intake.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
DNA nanostructures are a set of materials with well-defined physical, chemical, and biological properties that can be used on their own or incorporated with other materials for many applications. Herein, the practical aspects of utilizing DNA nanostructures (structural or dynamic) as materials are comprehensively covered. This article first summarizes properties of DNA molecules and practical considerations and then discusses the fundamental design principles of structural DNA nanostructures. Finally, various aspects of dynamic DNA nanostructure-based actuation and computation are included.
Infants and young children are frequently colonized with C. difficile but rarely have symptomatic disease. However, C. difficile testing remains prevalent in this age group.
To design a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) alert to decrease testing for C. difficile in young children and infants.
An interventional age-targeted before-after trial with comparison group
Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.
All children seen in the inpatient or emergency room settings from July 2012 through July 2013 (pre-CPOE alert) and September 2013 through September 2014 (post-CPOE alert)
In August of 2013, we implemented a CPOE alert advising against testing in infants and young children based on the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations with an optional override. We further offered healthcare providers educational seminars regarding recommended C. difficile testing.
The average monthly testing rate significantly decreased after the CPOE alert for children 0–11 months old (11.5 pre-alert vs 0 post-alert per 10,000 patient days; P<.001) and 12–35 months old (61.6 pre-alert vs 30.1 post-alert per 10,000 patients days; P<.001), but not for those children ≥36 months old (50.9 pre-alert vs 46.4 post-alert per 10,000 patient days; P=.3) who were not targeted with a CPOE alert. There were no complications in those children who testing positive for C. difficile.
The average monthly testing rate for C. difficile for children <35 months old decreased without complication after the use of a CPOE alert in those who tested positive for C. difficile.
The evolution of glyphosate resistance in weedy species places an environmentally benign herbicide in peril. The first report of a dicot plant with evolved glyphosate resistance was horseweed, which occurred in 2001. Since then, several species have evolved glyphosate resistance and genomic information about nontarget resistance mechanisms in any of them ranges from none to little. Here, we report a study combining iGentifier transcriptome analysis, cDNA sequencing, and a heterologous microarray analysis to explore potential molecular and transcriptomic mechanisms of nontarget glyphosate resistance of horseweed. The results indicate that similar molecular mechanisms might exist for nontarget herbicide resistance across multiple resistant plants from different locations, even though resistance among these resistant plants likely evolved independently and available evidence suggests resistance has evolved at least four separate times. In addition, both the microarray and sequence analyses identified non–target-site resistance candidate genes for follow-on functional genomics analysis.
Transition metal dichalcogenides such as WS2 show exciting promise in electronic and optoelectronic applications. Significant variations in the transport, Raman, and photoluminescence (PL) can be found in the literature, yet it is rarely addressed why this is. In this report, Raman and PL of monolayered WS2 produced via different methods are studied and distinct features that indicate the degree of crystallinity of the material are observed. While the intensity of the LA(M) Raman mode is found to be a useful indicator to assess the crystallinity, PL is drastically more sensitive to the quality of the material than Raman spectroscopy. We also show that even exfoliated crystals, which are usually regarded as the most pristine material, can contain large amounts of defects that would not be apparent without Raman and PL measurements. These findings can be applied to the understanding of other two-dimensional heterostructured systems.
Interfacial dislocations (IDs) and half-loop arrays (HLAs) present in the
epilayers of 4H-SiC crystal are known to have a deleterious effect on device
performance. Synchrotron X-ray Topography studies carried out on n-type 4H-SiC
offcut wafers before and after epitaxial growth show that in many cases BPD
segments in the substrate are responsible for creating IDs and HLAs during CVD
growth. This paper reviews the behaviors of BPDs in the substrate during the
epitaxial growth in different cases: (1) screw-oriented BPD segments
intersecting the surface replicate directly through the interface during the
epitaxial growth and take part in stress relaxation process by creating IDs and
HLAs (Matthews-Blakeslee model  ); (2) non-screw oriented BPD half loop
intersecting the surface glides towards and replicates through the interface,
while the intersection points convert to threading edge dislocations (TEDs) and
pin the half loop, leaving straight screw segments in the epilayer and then
create IDs and HLAs; (3) edge oriented short BPD segments well below the surface
get dragged towards the interface during epitaxial growth, leaving two long
screw segments in their wake, some of which replicate through the interface and
create IDs and HLAs. The driving force for the BPDs to glide toward the
interface is thermal stress and driving force for the relaxation process to
occur is the lattice parameter difference at growth temperature which results
from the doping concentration difference between the substrate and epilayer.