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Templated growth for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots and lattice-mismatched structures has been employed in this study. Self assembly of block copolymers (BCP) has been exploited to create a regular array of nanoscale patterns on a substrate to generate the growth template. These patterned templates were used for the selective area growth of pseudomorphic quantum dots, allowing for precise control over the dot size and spatial distribution. Strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched structures grown past the pseudomorphic limit was also studied. Analysis of the grown structures suggests that this approach using block copolymer templating followed by selective growth can be used for defect reduction in lattice-mismatched materials.
On 26 February 1616 Galileo was ordered to cease to defend heliocentrism in any way whatsoever. This order, called a precept, automatically applied to anything he might later attempt to publish on the subject. Issued at the end of his first trial by the Roman Inquisition, the precept became the spark that triggered his second trial in 1632–3 and figured importantly in the justification of his sentence. This precept has been a subject of controversy since the late nineteenth century for its authenticity, legality and legitimacy. This paper addresses the first two points and establishes the facts of what probably happened in 1616. It does so by examining seven texts that bear on the event. All but one of these (plus Galileo's first deposition in 1633) agree tolerably well that Galileo did indeed receive the precept in the strongest form. An examination of the singleton text in the context of how the Inquisition produced and kept its records as well as of its procedures and personnel shows that it is the least reliable source. This context also supports the argument that certainty about what happened is impossible to achieve. The theory that the document most damaging to Galileo was a forgery is also disposed of. Examination of the crucial phrase successive ac incontinenti in one of the documents supports the paper's suggestion that more caution is in order before accepting the currently nearly universal claim that the precept was improper in law.
Despite the widespread acceptance of Friedman and Schwartz's interpretation of the 1936/37 increase in member bank reserve requirements as the major cause of the 1937/38 recession there is surprisingly little straightforward evidence on this issue, perhaps because data limitations and structural instability preclude econometric modeling. We exploit a simple alternative, comparing member banks with nonmember banks not subject to changes in reserve requirements. The results support the hypothesis that the increase in reserve requirements reduced the availability of bank credit and contributed to the recession.