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The development of performance measures is not a new concept in the disaster preparedness space. For over a decade, goals have been developed and tied to federal preparedness grant programs. However, these measures have been heavily criticized for their inability to truly measure preparedness. There is also growing frustration at the local level that these performance measures do not account for local readiness priorities or the outcome-driven value of emergency response activities. To define an appropriate theoretical framework for the development of performance measures, a review of the literature on existing planning and preparedness frameworks was conducted, with an iterative feedback process with a local health agency. This paper presents elements of that literature review that were most directly along with the conceptual framework that was used as a starting point for future iterations of a comprehensive performance measure development project.
Friedrich Hayek’s business cycle theory withered throughout the 1930s as he admitted that its underlying model of Böhm-Bawerkian roundaboutness was incomplete and inadequate. In 1934, Hayek started a two-volume book on capital theory, completing only one volume in 1941. Curiously, Hayek ( 2009) cites John Hicks’s (1939) Value and Capital but not the financial measure of roundaboutness that Hicks suggested as a substitute for Böhm-Bawerkian roundaboutness. In 1967, in “The Hayek Story,” Hicks criticized the inexplicable lags. Hayek maintained his view that consumption was sticky and responded to Hicks with a mound-of-honey analogy. Nevertheless, Hayek maintained that his business cycle theory was fundamentally correct and continued to hope that others might someday discover a capital structure theory to undergird it. Toward fulfilling Hayek’s hope, we suggest augmenting the canonical stages of production with a sequestered-capital stage where products are invented, productized, and inventoried prior to launch, uncoordinated by observable prices.
In August 2017, Hurricane Harvey struck the US Gulf Coast and caused more than US $125 billion in damages in Texas. The loss of lives and the economic damages resulted in an outpouring of support for the recovery efforts in the form of federal assistance and private donations. The latter has supported more creative approaches to recovery. Organizations that normally would not receive funding were able to obtain resources to use in novel manners. Using the framework of Dynes typology to identify groups and their respective structures and tasks, this report from the field analyzes Hurricane Harvey and the financial support mechanisms used to support recovery efforts in Texas, what organizations were funded to do, and where they fit into Dynes typology. The authors close by noting the importance of these emerging organizations and the need to support diversity in funding disaster response and recovery efforts beyond large nonprofit organizations.
It is known that in steady-state potential flows, the separation of a gravity-driven free surface from a solid exhibits a number of peculiar characteristics. For example, it can be shown that the fluid must separate from the body so as to form one of three possible in-fluid angles: (i)
or (iii) an angle such that the surface is locally perpendicular to the direction of gravity. These necessary separation conditions were notably remarked upon by Dagan & Tulin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 51 (3), 1972, pp. 529–543) in the context of ship hydrodynamics, but they are of crucial importance in many potential-flow applications. It is not particularly well understood why there is such a drastic change in the local separation behaviours when the global flow is altered. The question that motivates this work is the following: outside of a formal balance-of-terms argument, why must cases (i)–(iii) occur and furthermore, what are the connections between them? In this work, we seek to explain the transitions between the three cases in terms of the singularity structure of the associated solutions once they are extended into the complex plane. A numerical scheme is presented for the analytic continuation of a vertical jet (or alternatively a rising bubble). It will be shown that the transition between the three cases can be predicted by observing the coalescence of singularities as the speed of the jet is modified. A scaling law is derived for the coalescence rate of singularities.
Framing tulipmania in terms of sequestered capital – capital whose quantities, usages and future yields are hidden from market participants – offers a richer and more straightforward explanation for this famous financial bubble than extant alternatives. Simply put, the underground planting of the tulip bulbs in 1636 blindfolded seventeenth-century Dutch speculators regarding the planted quantities and their development and future yields. The price boom began in mid November 1636, coinciding with the time of planting. The price collapse occurred in the first week of February 1637, coinciding with the time of bulb sprouting – signaling bulb quantities, development and future yields. Also consistent with our explanation is the initial price collapse location, in the Dutch city of Haarlem, where temperature and geography favored early sprouting and sprout visibility.
This collective case study examined how and why specific organizational decision-making processes transpired at 2 large suburban county health departments in lower New York State during their response to Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The study also examined the relationships that the agencies developed with other emerging and established organizations within their respective health systems.
In investigating these themes, the authors conducted in-depth, one-on-one interviews with 30 senior-level public health staff and first responders; reviewed documentation; and moderated 2 focus group discussions with 17 participants.
Although a natural hazard such as a hurricane was not an unexpected event for these health departments, they nevertheless confronted a number of unforeseen challenges during the response phase: prolonged loss of power and fuel, limited situational awareness of the depth and breadth of the storm’s impact among disaster-exposed populations, and coordination problems with a number of organizations that emerged in response to the disaster.
Public health staff had few plans or protocols to guide them and often found themselves improvising and problem-solving with new organizations in the context of an overburdened health care system (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:436–442).
To identify risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents.
Multicenter, prospective cohort followed over 6 months.
Three Veterans Affairs (VA) LTCFs.
All current and new residents except those with short stay (<2 weeks).
MRSA carriage was assessed by serial nares cultures and classified into 3 groups: persistent (all cultures positive), intermittent (at least 1 but not all cultures positive), and noncarrier (no cultures positive). MRSA acquisition was defined by an initial negative culture followed by more than 2 positive cultures with no subsequent negative cultures. Epidemiologic data were collected to identify risk factors, and MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Among 412 residents at 3 LTCFs, overall MRSA prevalence was 58%, with similar distributions of carriage at all 3 facilities: 20% persistent, 39% intermittent, 41% noncarriers. Of 254 residents with an initial negative swab, 25 (10%) acquired MRSA over the 6 months; rates were similar at all 3 LTCFs, with no clusters evident. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that receipt of systemic antimicrobials during the study was the only significant risk factor for MRSA acquisition (odds ratio, 7.8 [95% confidence interval, 2.1–28.6]; P = .002). MRSA strains from acquisitions were related by PFGE to those from a roommate in 9/25 (36%) cases; 6 of these 9 roommate sources were persistent carriers.
MRSA colonization prevalence was high at 3 separate VA LTCFs. MRSA acquisition was strongly associated with antimicrobial exposure. Roommate sources were often persistent carriers, but transmission from roommates accounted for only approximately one-third of MRSA acquisitions.
Boron doped CVD diamond has been extensively studied in bulk form but little has been published regarding the effects that the initial seeding and growth conditions can have on the characteristics of the initial layer of diamond. This can have a dramatic effect on the performance of the film in applications ranging from AFM probe tips to electrodes used for water purification and other applications. This paper will examine how initial growth conditions and seeding methods can affect the film interface characteristics of doped diamond grown in hot filament CVD reactors.
Visible-light-driven Ag3VO4 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis method. Under various hydrothermal conditions, the structures of silver vanadates were tuned by manipulating the hydrothermal time and the ratio of silver to vanadium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the powders prepared in a stoichiometric ratio consisted of pure α-Ag3VO4 or mixed phases of Ag4V2O7 and α-Ag3VO4. With increasing the Ag-to-V mole ratio to 6:1, the resulting samples were identified as pure monoclinic structure α-Ag3VO4. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that silver vanadate particles had strong visible light absorption with associated band gaps in the range of 2.2-2.5 eV. The sample synthesized in the excess silver exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that synthesized in a stoichiometric ratio. The powder synthesized at silver-rich at 140℃ for 4 h (SHT4) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all samples. The reactivity of SHT4 (surface area, 3.52 m2 g-1) on the decomposition of gaseous benzene was about 16 times higher than that of P25 (surface area, 49.04 m2 g-1) under visible light irradiation. A well developed crystallinity of Ag3VO4 of SHT 4 was considered to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency.
Conductive diamond films are essential for electronic applications of diamond but there is still a poor understanding of the effects that growth conditions, grain size and film thickness have on the ultimate conductivity of the film. One of the unique advantages of hot filament diamond is the ability to grow both MCD and NCD films to moderate thicknesses over large areas with little or no change in morphological characteristics such as grain size. In addition the grain size of the film can be altered without the necessity of adding additional gases to the process or unduly increasing the carbon to hydrogen ratio. This gives us an opportunity to investigate electrical conductivity as a function of grain size and thickness within a simple methane, hydrogen, and boron chemical environment over areas which are large enough to support significant production levels of MEMS and other diamond based electronics. In this study the boron source was selected to be trimethyl boron gas to avoid any source of oxygen which could alter the growth conditions and to guarantee that any byproducts of the dopant would be primarily methyl based. The films were grown to various thicknesses up to 5 micrometers and grain sizes from NCD to full MCD at all thicknesses. This paper explores the effects of both grain size and film thickness on the electrical conductivity of the film as well as the absolute doping levels within the film.
TiO2, TiO2-1at.% W and TiO2-1at.% Cr were produced from metal-organic precursors by flame spray synthesis (FSS). TiO2-0.5at.% N was obtained by ammonolysis of FSS made TiO2 nanopowder in a rotating tube furnace under NH3 atmosphere. According to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, anatase is the predominant phase in all samples. Diffusive reflectance and the resulting band gap energy (Eg) were determined by diffusive reflection spectroscopy (DRS).
Additional impurity bands at 2.43 and 2.57 eV for N- and Cr-doped TiO2, respectively have been observed. The impurity band formed in the band gap resulted in increase of the light absorption in the visible range. The photocatalytic performance of the nanopowders under ultraviolet (UV, 290-410 nm) and visible light irradiation (Vis, 400-500 nm) was studied by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous suspensions. It was found that all types of dopants influence the structure, interaction with the visible light as well as photocatalytic activity. Among all nanopowders, TiO2-W exhibited the best photoactivity, much higher than the commercial TiO2-P25 nanopowder. The optimum of the photodecolourization was obtained for 0.7 and 1 at.% W.
Core-level and valence-band spectra of Pu and the other early actinide compounds show remarkable systematics, which can be understood in the framework of final state screening. We compare the early actinide (U, Np, Pu and Am) metals, nitrides and hydrides and a few other specific compounds (PuSe, PuS, PuCx, PuSix) prepared as thin films by sputter deposition. In choosing these systems, we combine inherent 5f band narrowing, due to 5f orbital contraction throughout the actinide series, with variations of the chemical environment in the compounds. Goal of this work was to learn more on the electronic structure of the early actinide systems and to achieve the correct interpretation of their photoemission spectra. The highly correlated nature of the 5f states in systems, which are on the verge to localization, makes this a challenging task, because of the peculiar interplay between ground state DOS and final-state effects. Their influence can be estimated by doing systematic studies on systems with different (5f) bandwidths. We conclude on the basis of such systematic experiments that final-state effects due to strong e-e correlations in narrow 5f-band systems lead to multiplet like structures, analogous to those observed in the case of systems with localized electron states. Such observations in essentially band-like 5f-systems was first surprising, but the astonishing similarity of photoemission spectra of very different chemical systems (e.g. PuSe, Pu2C3 and δ-Pu) points to a common origin, relating them to atomic features rather than material dependent density of states (DOS) features.
The use of spectroscopic techniques to study crossed molecular beam scattering has been both fruitful and difficult to accomplish. The advantage of using laser spectroscopy to detect the products in crossed molecular beam scattering experiments is that one can obtain quantum-state-selective information about the scattering process. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to design an experiment with sufficient wavelength and spatial resolution and detection sensitivity. For this reason until quite recently laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was the only laser-based technique used for the quantum-state-selective detection of scattering products [1–5]. Recently the technique of ion imaging has been used to increase the sensitivity of ionization detection such that resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) can now be used to detect molecular beam scattering products. Suits et al. were the first, in the early 1990s, to apply ion-imaging techniques to bimolecular scattering . Since then, ion imaging has been found to be a powerful tool for the study of bimolecular inelastic scattering. Ion imaging has been used to measure differential cross-sections (DCSs) [6,7], as well as to measure collision-induced rotational alignment  and orientation . In this chapter we will focus on a new application of ion imaging, the retrieving of correlated energy transfer distributions from crossed molecular beam ion imaging experiments.
The previous studies of bimolecular collision systems consisted of a diatomic target molecule colliding with a rare gas atom. The monatomic collider gas has no internal energy, and a single rotational state of the diatomic molecule was detected, using REMPI.
The present study examined neuropsychological (NP) functioning and associated medical, neurological, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and psychiatric findings in 389 nondemented males infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), and in 111 uninfected controls. Using a comprehensive NP test battery, we found increased rates of impairment at each successive stage of HIV infection. HIV-related NP impairment was generally mild, especially in the medically asymptomatic stage of infection, and most often affected attention, speed of information processing, and learning efficiency; this pattern is consistent with earliest involvement of subcortical or frontostriatal brain systems. NP impairment could not be explained on the bases of mood disturbance, recreational drug or alcohol use, or constitutional symptoms; by contrast, impairment in HIV-infected subjects was related to central brain atrophy on MRI, as well as to evidence of cellular immune activation and neurological abnormalities linked to the central nervous system. (JINS, 1995, 1, 231–251.)
Sixty male adjudicated juvenile delinquents between the ages 14–17, and 20 nondelinquent controls were administered measures of moral reasoning, social convention understanding, interpersonal awareness, socialization, empathy, autonomy, and psychopathy in an effort to explore the relations between moral reasoning, moral sentiment, and antisocial behavior. Not only did the delinquent group evidence developmental delays on all of these direct and indirect tests of morality functioning, but their performance on certain of these measures also differentiated those offenders who were more or less psychopathic. By demonstrating the special contribution of measures of moral will or sentiment to the study of antisocial behavior, these findings serve to underscore the multidimensional character of moral development, and the complexity of the relations between thought and action.
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