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Damage to non–dicamba resistant (non-DR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] has been frequent in geographies where dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have been grown and sprayed with the herbicide in recent years. Off-target movement field trials were conducted in northwest Arkansas to determine the relationship between dicamba concentration in the air and the extent of symptomology on non-DR soybean. Additionally, the frequency and concentration of dicamba in air samples at two locations in eastern Arkansas and environmental conditions that impacted the detection of the herbicide in air samples were evaluated. Treatment applications included dicamba at 560 g ae ha−1 (1X rate), glyphosate at 860 g ae ha−1, and particle drift retardant at 1% v/v applied to 0.37-ha fields with varying degrees of vegetation. The relationship between dicamba concentration in air samples and non-DR soybean response to the herbicide was more predictive with visible injury (generalized R2 = 0.82) than height reduction (generalized R2 = 0.43). The predicted dicamba air concentration resulting in 10% injury to soybean was 1.60 ng m−3 d−1 for a single exposure. The predicted concentration from a single exposure to dicamba resulting in a 10% height reduction was 3.78 ng m−3 d−1. Dicamba was frequently detected in eastern Arkansas, and daily detections above 1.60 ng m−3 occurred 17 times in the period sampled. The maximum concentration of dicamba recorded was 7.96 ng m−3 d−1, while dicamba concentrations at Marianna and Keiser, AR, were ≥1 ng m−3 d−1 in six samples collected in 2020 and 22 samples in 2021. Dicamba was detected consistently in air samples collected, indicating high usage in the region and the potential for soybean damage over an extended period. More research is needed to quantify the plant absorption rate of volatile dicamba and to evaluate the impact of multiple exposures of gaseous dicamba on non-targeted plant species.
Auxinic herbicides have been commonly used in production systems for broadleaf weed control for many years. One potential negative aspect to their use is their propensity to volatilize and move away from the treated area after application. This research examined three herbicide formulations and their relative amounts of vaporization following application under field conditions in Knoxville, TN, in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Herbicide treatments evaluated included 2,4-D choline, 2,4-D amine, and the diglycolamine (DGA) salt of dicamba. Ten field studies were conducted with major parameters including air sampler height (0.3 and 1.3 m) and applied surface condition (dry wheat stubble or green-plant vegetation). The relative volatility indicated by the study was that dicamba > 2,4-D choline = 2,4-D amine. Detected herbicide concentrations were numerically higher at the 0.3-m sampling height and in the green-plant surface condition. These results confirm that dicamba is more volatile than 2,4-D and that there was no difference in vapor emissions between the amine and choline salts of 2,4-D under field conditions.
This research examined a potential nuisance aspect of the use of the volatility-reducing agent (VRA) potassium carbonate when combined with glyphosate in spray-tank mixtures. A VRA is now required to be added to dicamba applications to reduce off-target movement from volatility. When no VRA potassium carbonate was added to the spray mixture, there was no pressure buildup. The addition of VRA potassium carbonate plus glyphosate (which lowers the pH) resulted in an observed pressure buildup. Although the gas produced was not identified, it would be expected to be carbon dioxide formed by the dissolution of the carbonate anion from the VRA. Source water pH range from 3.2 to 8.2 had no effect on pressure buildup. Pressure buildup was directly related to water temperature, with a linear response to temperature when the VRA was added last; in contrast, a less direct relationship of temperature to pressure buildup existed at temperatures >30 C when the VRA potassium carbonate was added first. There was no effect on the pressure increase from adding a defoamer or a drift control agent.
Junglerice is becoming more prevalent in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi row crop fields. The evolution of glyphosate-resistant (GR) junglerice populations is one reason for the increase. Another possible explanation is that glyphosate and clethodim grass activity is being antagonized by dicamba. This question has led to research to examine whether sequential applications alleviate antagonism observed with dicamba plus glyphosate and/or clethodim mixtures and determine whether sequential treatments with those herbicides at 24 h, 72 h, or 168 h can improve junglerice control. Glyphosate + clethodim applications provided >90% junglerice control. The observed levels of antagonism varied by whether the location of the test was in the greenhouse or the field, and the timing of applications. In the greenhouse, clethodim + dicamba provided excellent control, whereas in the field, the same treatment showed a greater than 30% reduction in junglerice control compared with clethodim alone. However, control was restored by using a mixture of glyphosate + clethodim without dicamba. The environment at the time of application and relative GR level of the junglerice influenced the overall control of these sequential applications. When clethodim applied first followed by dicamba at 72 h or 168 h, better control was observed compared with applying dicamba followed by clethodim. Overall, mixing glyphosate + clethodim provided the most complete junglerice control regardless of timing. These data confirm that leaving dicamba out of the spray tank will mitigate herbicide antagonism on junglerice control. These data would also indicate that avoiding dicamba and glyphosate mixtures will also improve the consistency of control with glyphosate-susceptible junglerice.
Junglerice has become a major weed in the mid-south and other areas of the United States. Glyphosate resistance has been documented in junglerice populations and is part of the reason for the increase in its prevalence. However, reduced junglerice control with glyphosate + dicamba and clethodim + dicamba mixtures has been observed in many production fields where glyphosate resistance has not yet evolved. Therefore, research was conducted to assess reduced junglerice control with glyphosate and clethodim when applied with dicamba. Adding dicamba to the spray tank with glyphosate reduced junglerice control by 27%. Adding dicamba to the spray tank with clethodim reduced junglerice control by 11%. The use of Turbo Teejet Induction (TTI) nozzles reduced junglerice control an additional 8% compared to applications with an air induction extended range (AIXR) nozzle. When a drift reduction agent (DRA) was added to dicamba mixtures with glyphosate or clethodim, junglerice control was reduced 36%. Junglerice control was similar with the glyphosate + dicamba treatment compared to the glyphosate + 2,4-D mixture. There was no interaction between nozzles and herbicide treatment. Regardless of herbicide treatment junglerice control was always lower when applied with the ultracourse TTI nozzle. Many applicators in Tennessee prefer to make one application of glyphosate + dicamba in a mixture to save time (authors’ personal experience). These results show that the addition of dicamba to glyphosate or clethodim applied with labeled nozzles and a DRA results in reduced junglerice control and should be avoided.
Junglerice has become a major weed in Tennessee cotton and soybean fields. Glyphosate has been relied on to control these accessions over the past two decades, but in recent years cotton and soybean producers have reported junglerice escapes after glyphosate + dicamba and/or clethodim applications. In the growing seasons of 2018 and 2019, a survey was conducted of weed escapes in dicamba-resistant (DR) crops. Junglerice was the most prevalent weed escape in these DR (Roundup Ready Xtend®) cotton and soybean fields in both years of the study. In 2018 and 2019, junglerice was found 76% and 64% of the time in DR cotton and soybean fields, respectively. Progeny from junglerice seeds collected during this survey was screened for glyphosate and clethodim resistance. Seventy percent of the junglerice accessions tested had an effective relative resistance factor to glyphosate of 3.1 to 8.5. In all, 13% of the junglerice accessions could no longer be effectively controlled with glyphosate. This research also showed that all sampled accessions could still be controlled with clethodim in a greenhouse environment, but less control was observed in the field. These data also suggest that another cause for the poor junglerice control is dicamba antagonism of glyphosate and clethodim activity.
Atrazine applied at planting is commonly used for weed control in corn. With global climate change causing an increase in river flooding in the United States over the past decade, producers need information to determine the best course of action in flooded fields treated with atrazine into which they wish to immediately plant soybean. Studies were designed to understand the effect of flooding on atrazine residual activity including atrazine concentration, soybean injury, and soybean yield. In 2012, soybean yield in flooded treatments was reduced by prior atrazine application. In 2014, soybean injury was <10% in all plots, and nonflooded, atrazine-treated soils had yields equal to the nontreated. Findings from this research indicated that it is possible for producers to consider replanting soybean after atrazine application, with appropriate changes to product labeling.
The evolution and widespread distribution of glyphosate-resistant broadleaf weed species catalyzed the introduction of dicamba-resistant crops that allow this herbicide to be applied POST to soybean and cotton. Applications of dicamba that are most cited for off-target movement have occurred in June and July in many states when weeds are often in high densities and at least 10 cm or taller at the time of application. For registration purposes, most field studies examining pesticide emissions are conducted using bare ground or very small plants. Research was conducted in Knoxville, TN, in the summer of 2017, 2018, and 2019 to examine the effect of application surface (tilled soil, dead plants, green plants) on dicamba emissions under field conditions. Dicamba emissions after application were affected by the treated surface in all years, with the order from least to most emissions being dead plants < tilled soil < green plant material. In fact, dicamba emissions were >300% when applied to green plants compared to other surfaces. These findings suggest that dicamba applications made to bare ground will likely underestimate what may occur under normal field use conditions when POST applications are made and the crop canopy or weed groundcover is nearly 100% green material. A potential change to enhance the accuracy of current environmental simulation models would be to increase the theoretical findings to allow for the effect of green plant material on dicamba emissions under field conditions.
The pH of spray mixtures is an important attribute that affects dicamba volatility under field conditions. This report examined the effect of different components added to water sources that ranged in initial pH from 4.6 to 8.4. Commercial products were used, which include formulations of dicamba, glyphosate, the drift retardant Intact, ammonium sulfate (AMS), and several pH modifiers. Adding BAPMA salt of dicamba always increased the mixture pH, whereas diglycolamine + VaporGrip® (DGA+VG) had a mixed response. The addition of AMS decreased pH slightly (usually <0.5 pH unit), whereas the addition of potassium salt of glyphosate (GLY-K) always decreased the measured pH (from 1.0 to 2.1 pH units). A substantial pH change could have profound effects on dicamba volatility. Moreover, the 1.0 to 2.1 pH units would not be consistent with the registrant’s report stating that GLY-K decreased mixtures with DGA+VG pH by only 0.2 to 0.3 units. The drift retardant Intact had no effect on pH. There was no difference in resultant pH when comparing K salt and isopropylamine (IPA) salts of glyphosate. Spray carrier volume, ranging from 94 to 187 L ha–1, had only a minor effect on measured pH after the addition of various spray components. The addition of selected pH modifiers raised the pH above 5.0, which is a critical value according to the latest dicamba application labels. The order of mixing of various pH modifiers, including AMS, had only limited effect on measured spray solution pH.
This research examined dicamba measurements following an application to soil inside a humidome. The dicamba formulations examined were the diglycolamine (DGA) and diglycolamine plus VaporGrip® (DGA+VG), both applied with glyphosate. Post-application dicamba measurements were related to ambient temperature, with more dicamba detected as the temperature increased. There also appeared to be a minimum temperature of ~15 C at which dicamba decreased to low levels. The addition of glyphosate to dicamba formulations decreased the spray mixture pH and increased the observed dicamba air concentrations. Adding glyphosate to DGA+VG increased detectable dicamba air concentrations by 2.9 to 9.3 times across the temperature ranges examined. Particle drift would not be expected to be a factor in the research, as applications were made remotely before treated soil was transported into the greenhouse. The most probable reason for the increased detection of dicamba at higher temperatures and with mixtures of glyphosate is via volatility.
The triazines are one of the most widely used herbicide classes ever developed and are critical for managing weed populations that have developed herbicide resistance. These herbicides are traditionally valued for their residual weed control in more than 50 crops. Scientific literature suggests that atrazine, and perhaps other s-triazines, may no longer remain persistent in soils due to enhanced microbial degradation. Experiments examined the rate of degradation of atrazine and two other triazine herbicides, simazine and metribuzin, in both atrazine-adapted and non-history Corn Belt soils, with similar soils being used from each state as a comparison of potential triazine degradation. In three soils with no history of atrazine use, the t1/2 of atrazine was at least four times greater than in three soils with a history of atrazine use. Simazine degradation in the same three sets of soils was 2.4 to 15 times more rapid in history soils than non-history soils. Metribuzin in history soils degraded at 0.6, 0.9, and 1.9 times the rate seen in the same three non-history soils. These results indicate enhanced degradation of the symmetrical triazine simazine, but not of the asymmetrical triazine metribuzin.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
Palmer amaranth resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides has become an increasing problem to producers throughout the southeast region of the United States. Traditionally, these herbicides can be used as foliar-applied and soil-applied in glyphosate resistant (GR) cropping systems to control GR Palmer amaranth. Heavy reliance on PPO herbicides has contributed to the increased selection for PPO inhibitor-resistant (PPO-R) Palmer amaranth biotypes. Dose response greenhouse research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of soil-applied flumioxazin, fomesafen, saflufenacil and sulfentrazone on a known susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Palmer amaranth biotype. Both R and S populations reached maximum germination at 14 d after treatment (DAT). The data from this study suggests complete control (100%) was achieved for the S biotype at 35 d after treatment (DAT) with all herbicides. The R biotype showed difference among herbicide treatments with flumioxazin and saflufenacil having similar responses in control and fomesafen and sulfentrazone resulting in less control of the R Palmer amaranth biotypes. The calculated relative resistance factor ranged from 3.5 to 6.0, and averaged 5X for the four herbicides. This research indicated that the PPO-R population was still responsive to all tested herbicides, but a low level of resistance was present.
Field studies were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Tennessee to examine pyroxasulfone dissipation under field conditions of winter wheat production. Three formulations were examined: (1) a single component active ingredient in an 85% dry flowable, (2) dry flowable formulation in combination of pyroxasulfone+flumioxazin, and (3) a liquid SC formulation of pyroxasulfone+carfentrazone. The liquid formulation is a suspo-emulsion. When averaged across the three studies, the DT 50 were 34.4, 30.2 and 29.9 d for pyroxasulfone plus carfentrazone, pyroxasulfone, and pyroxasulfone plus flumioxazin, respectively. These trends would indicate that formulation had little or no effect on pyroxasulfone dissipation in this experiment. Pyroxasulfone DT 50 in all studies ranged from a low of 15.4 d to a high of 53.3 d, and loss was more rapid under warm, moist conditions. These results indicate that pyroxasulfone would last long enough to provide residual weed control, but would not persist excessively to injure rotational crops.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) response was evaluated when quinclorac was applied prior to cotton emergence (preemergence) and to cotton in the cotyledon and pin-head square stages in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Quinclorac applications at 9, 17, 35, 70, and 140 g ha−1 prior to cotton emergence had little effect on cotton growth, with only 140 g ha−1 causing stand reduction or stunting. Quinclorac application to cotton in the cotyledon stage caused more damage, and 70 g ha−1 caused crop injury. Greatest phytotoxicity was observed when quinclorac was applied to cotton at pin-head square, with all rates including 9 g ha−1 causing injury. Cotton injury consisted of leaf strapping and malformation of reproductive structures. Regression analysis revealed yield was reduced by quinclorac applications to cotton in the cotyledon or pin-head square stage. The approximate regression equation to predict cotton yields after pin-head square application of quinclorac was [yield] = [yield with no injury] − 10(quinclorac rate in g ha−1).
Growth chamber experiments evaluated the influence of ambient temperature and soil moisture on cotton and velvetleaf response to pyrithiobac. Additional studies determined the basis for observed plant responses to 14C pyrithiobac. Cotton injury from six times the normal dosage was < 20% at 2 wk for all temperatures and soil moistures. Pyrithiobac injured velvetleaf less at lower soil moistures. Both species absorbed more 14C-pyrithiobac at 30/28 or 35/33 C than at 25/23 C. Cotton absorbed more herbicide than velvetleaf at all temperatures and soil moistures. Velvetleaf translocated < 16% of absorbed 14C out of the treated leaf while cotton translocated < 3% of absorbed material. At warmer temperatures, velvetleaf translocated less 14C when soil was dry (–1.0 MPa) than when plants were watered to field capacity (–0.03 MPa). This decreased absorption and translocation may affect pyrithiobac activity on velvetleaf growing in dry soil. Translocation differences did not fully explain whole plant effects. The metabolism difference may account for cotton tolerance.
Field studies were conducted from 1985 to 1989 on a Sharkey clay to examine injury to a semi-dwarf rice cultivar, ‘Lemont’, from triclopyr or triclopyr plus propanil. Triclopyr applied in the booting stage reduced yield two of three years, with the observed yield reduction possibly caused by epinasty of the rice flag leaf. Triclopyr application to three- to four-leaf rice caused hyponasty. Triclopyr did not reduce plant height, seed weight, germination, or total milling yield. Triclopyr plus propanil caused more leaf burn that triclopyr alone, but yields were not reduced compared with the untreated control. This research indicated that triclopyr and triclopyr plus propanil can be used in rice production with the semi-dwarf cultivar, Lemont, with the potential to minimize drift to non-target crops due to the greater flexibility in application timing compared with 2,4-D application.