Evidence of the impact of maternal nutritional status on pregnancy outcome is increasing. However, reference values for vitamin and homocysteine concentrations in maternal blood during normal pregnancy are scarce, and are lacking for the preconceptional period and early pregnancy. Thus, in a longitudinal study we evaluated vitamin and homocysteine concentrations in 102 nulliparous women with an uneventful singleton pregnancy and normal outcome not using supplements. The physiological changes in vitamin and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined from the preconceptional period throughout pregnancy until 6 weeks post-partum. The vitamins evaluated comprised retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, folate in serum and erythrocytes, vitamin B12 and α-tocopherol. The plasma homocysteine concentration was also measured, considering the essential roles of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in homocysteine metabolism. The concentrations of retinol, thiamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate serum folate and vitamin B12 decreased during pregnancy. In contrast, the concentrations of riboflavin, α-tocopherol, and folate in erythrocytes increased or showed only minor changes. Homocysteine concentrations also remained approximately constant during pregnancy. These observations emphasize the importance of preconceptional and post-partum concentrations of vitamins in the evaluation of pregnancy-induced changes. These data have provided valuable reference values for vitamins and homocysteine before, during and after pregnancy in order to contribute to better diagnosis of maternal deficiencies and to study further the relationship between maternal vitamin status and adverse course and outcome of pregnancy.