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Finding less complicated coils that have adequately low field errors is a crucial step in stellarator development. One coil metric that is of high importance is the maximum curvature of the coil centreline, or coil single filament. Conductors cannot be bent below some threshold minimum radius of curvature. High coil curvatures can cause strains to exceed acceptable levels, especially in superconducting coils. We investigate three ways to optimize coil curvature and find that applying penalty functions to the coil curvature solves for coils that have a constrained maximum curvature and low field error. Penalty functions are implemented in FOCUS and coil solutions optimized for an HSX-like ‘plasma boundary’ are presented.
Systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure is important in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Predictors of an elevated systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure prior to bidirectional Glenn operation have been incompletely identified.
All patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn operation operation at our centre between January 2007 and March 2017 were retrospectively identified and patient variables were extracted. For patients who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of this study, post-Fontan patient variables were also extracted.
One-hundred patients were included with a median age at pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation of 4.5 months. In total, 71 (71%) patients had a systemic right ventricle. At the pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation, the mean systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher amongst those with systemic right ventricle compared to left ventricle (9.1 mmHg ± 2.1 versus 7.7 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). On univariate analysis, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01), history of recoarctation (p = 0.03), history of Norwood operation (p = 0.04), and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01) and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). Amongst those who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of study (n = 49), those with a higher pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure were more likely to have experienced death, transplantation, or listed for transplantation (p = 0.02) and more likely to have had heart failure symptoms (p = 0.04) at a mean time from Fontan of 5.2 years ± 1.3.
In patients undergoing bidirectional Glenn operation operation, the volume-loaded, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation state may expose diastolic dysfunction that has prognostic value.
Beryl from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province, western China is known for its unusual tabular habit and W–Sn–Be paragenesis in a greisen-type deposit. The crystals are typically colourless transparent to pale blue, often with screw dislocations of hexagonal symmetry on the (0001) crystal faces. Combining electron microprobe analyses and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), correlated with Raman and micro-infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging, the crystal chemical characteristics are determined. The contents of Na+ (0.24–0.38 atoms per formula unit (apfu)) and Li+ up to 0.38 apfu are at the high end compared to beryl from other localities worldwide. Li+ substitution for Be2+ on the tetrahedral (T2) site is predominantly charge balanced by Na+ on the smaller channel (C2) site, with Na+ ranging from 91.5% to 99.7% (apfu) of the sum of all other alkali elements. Cs+ and minor Rb+ and K+ primarily charge balance the minor M2+ substitution for Al3+ at the A site; all iron at the A site is suggested to be trivalent. The a axis ranges from 9.2161(2) to 9.2171(4) Å, with unit-cell volume from 678.03(3) to 678.48(7) Å3. The c/a ratio of 1.0002–1.0005 is characteristic for T2-type beryl with unit-cell parameters controlled primarily by Be2+ substitution. Transmission micro-IR vibrational spectroscopy and imaging identifies coordination of one or two water molecules to Na+ (type IIs and type IId, respectively) as well as alkali free water (type I). Based on IR absorption cross section and XRD a C1 site water content of 0.4–0.5 apfu is derived, i.e. close to 50% site occupancy. Secondary crystal phases with a decrease in Fe and Mg, yet increase in Na, suggest early crystallisation of aquamarine, with goshenite being late. With similar crystal chemistry to beryl of columnar habit from other localities worldwide, the tabular habit of Xuebaoding beryl seems to be unrelated to chemical composition and alkali content.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to COVID-19 with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplemental materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
A growing body of research suggests that childhood adversities are associated with later psychosis, broadly defined. However, there remain several gaps and unanswered questions. Most studies are of low-level psychotic experiences and findings cannot necessarily be extrapolated to psychotic disorders. Further, few studies have examined the effects of more fine-grained dimensions of adversity such as type, timing and severity.
Using detailed data from the Childhood Adversity and Psychosis (CAPsy) study, we sought to address these gaps and examine in detail associations between a range of childhood adversities and psychotic disorder.
CAPsy is population-based first-episode psychosis case–control study in the UK. In a sample of 374 cases and 301 controls, we collected extensive data on childhood adversities, in particular household discord, various forms of abuse and bullying, and putative confounders, including family history of psychotic disorder, using validated, semi-structured instruments.
We found strong evidence that all forms of childhood adversity were associated with around a two- to fourfold increased odds of psychotic disorder and that exposure to multiple adversities was associated with a linear increase in odds. We further found that severe forms of adversity, i.e. involving threat, hostility and violence, were most strongly associated with increased odds of disorder. More tentatively, we found that some adversities (e.g. bullying, sexual abuse) were more strongly associated with psychotic disorder if first occurrence was in adolescence.
Our findings extend previous research on childhood adversity and suggest a degree of specificity for severe adversities involving threat, hostility and violence.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of the present secondary data analysis was to examine the effect of moderate-severe disturbed sleep before the start of radiation therapy (RT) on subsequent RT-induced pain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Analyses were performed on 676 RT-naïve breast cancer patients (mean age 58, 100% female) scheduled to receive RT from a previously completed nationwide, multicenter, phase II randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of oral curcumin on radiation dermatitis severity. The trial was conducted at 21 community oncology practices throughout the US affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center NCI’s Community Oncology Research Program (URCC NCORP) Research Base. Sleep disturbance was assessed using a single item question from the modified MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (SI) on a 0–10 scale, with higher scores indicating greater sleep disturbance. Total subjective pain as well as the subdomains of pain (sensory, affective, and perceived) were assessed by the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain at treatment site (pain-Tx) was also assessed using a single item question from the SI. These assessments were included for pre-RT (baseline) and post-RT. For the present analyses, patients were dichotomized into 2 groups: those who had moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline (score≥4 on the SI; n=101) Versus those who had mild or no disturbed sleep (control group; score=0–3 on the SI; n=575). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Prior to the start of RT, breast cancer patients with moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline were younger, less likely to have had lumpectomy or partial mastectomy while more likely to have had total mastectomy and chemotherapy, more likely to be on sleep, anti-anxiety/depression, and prescription pain medications, and more likely to suffer from depression or anxiety disorder than the control group (all p’s≤0.02). Spearman rank correlations showed that changes in sleep disturbance from baseline to post-RT were significantly correlated with concurrent changes in total pain (r=0.38; p<0.001), sensory pain (r=0.35; p<0.001), affective pain (r=0.21; p<0.001), perceived pain intensity (r=0.37; p<0.001), and pain-Tx (r=0.35; p<0.001). In total, 92% of patients with moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline reported post-RT total pain compared with 79% of patients in the control group (p=0.006). Generalized linear estimating equations, after controlling for baseline pain and other covariates (baseline fatigue and distress, age, sleep medications, anti-anxiety/depression medications, prescription pain medications, and depression or anxiety disorder), showed that patients with moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline had significantly higher mean values of post-RT total pain (by 39%; p=0.033), post-RT sensory pain (by 41%; p=0.046), and post-RT affective pain (by 55%; p=0.035) than the control group. Perceived pain intensity (p=0.066) and pain-Tx (p=0.086) at post-RT were not significantly different between the 2 groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings suggest that moderate-severe disturbed sleep prior to RT is an important predictor for worsening of pain at post-RT in breast cancer patients. There could be several plausible reasons for this. Sleep disturbance, such as sleep loss and sleep continuity disturbance, could result in impaired sleep related recovery and repair of tissue damage associated with cancer and its treatment; thus, resulting in the amplification of pain. Sleep disturbance may also reduce pain tolerance threshold through increased sensitization of the central nervous system. In addition, pain and sleep disturbance may share common neuroimmunological pathways. Sleep disturbance may modulate inflammation, which in turn may contribute to increased pain. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and whether interventions targeting sleep disturbance in early phase could be potential alternate approaches to reduce pain after RT.
The objective of this study was to prospectively validate the “Brief Developmental Assessment”, which is a new early recognition tool for neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children with heart disease that was developed for use by cardiac teams.
This was a prospective validation study among a representative sample of 960 pre-school children with heart disease from three United Kingdom tertiary cardiac centres who were analysed grouped into five separate age bands.
The “Brief Developmental Assessment” was successfully validated in the older four age bands, but not in the youngest representing infants under the age of 4 months, as pre-set validation thresholds were met – lower 95% confidence limit for the correlation coefficient above 0.75 – in terms of agreement of scores between two raters and with an external measure the “Mullen Scales of Early Learning”. On the basis of American Association of Pediatrics Guidelines, which state that the sensitivity and specificity of a developmental screening tool should fall between 70 and 80%, “Brief Developmental Assessment” outcome of Red meets this threshold for detection of Mullen scores >2 standard deviations below the mean.
The “Brief Developmental Assessment” may be used to improve the quality of assessment of children with heart disease. This will require a training package for users and a guide to action for abnormal results. Further research is needed to determine how best to deploy the “Brief Developmental Assessment” at different time points in children with heart disease and to determine the management strategy in infants younger than 4 months old.
Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder.
Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood.
We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22–23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n=1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90–109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education.
There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22–23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120–0.198), P>0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74–102.6) v. 110.14 (95% CI 107.79–112.50), P>0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ.
A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents and young adults.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
This paper examines the attempt of British missionaries on Madagascar to use medicine and the mission hospital as a way to convert the Malagasy people during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In their attempt to educate the Malagasy about the benefits of Western civilization, which was often defined through science as well as Christianity, missionaries were challenged by Malagasy culture and the local environment. To counter the ability of the Malagasy to challenge Western methods through their cultural beliefs and healing practices and so convert the Malagasy to Western ways, British missionaries had to carve out a space isolated from the Malagasy environment. Medicine, particularly the mission hospital, offered a space to champion Western science and Christianity. In their attempt to bring civilization to Madagascar, missionaries directly tied together science and Christianity while domesticating the space of the hospital.
Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare cause of stroke, with a number of well-defined risk factors. However, there exist few studies that describe trends in the prognosis of this disease over time. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on patients diagnosed with cerebral venous thrombosis at the University of Alberta Hospital during two time periods: 1988-1998 (21 patients) and 1999-2009 (40 patients). Signs and symptoms, risk factors, imaging findings, etiologies, treatment modalities, and status at discharge were examined. Results: Headache, nausea and vomiting, focal motor deficit, and seizure were the most common signs and symptoms, and active hormonal contraception was the most commonly identified risk factor between the two cohorts. Hematoma and hyperdense sinuses were the most commonly identified CT findings between groups. Thrombophilia and the use of hormonal contraception were the most frequently identified etiologies between the two cohorts. Treatment was similar, with the majority of patients in both cohorts receiving unfractionated heparin as first-line therapy. Patients in the 1999-2009 cohort were significantly less likely to have a severe deficit or be dead at discharge (odds ratio [OR]=0.178; 95% confidence interval [CI95%]=0.051, 0.625) and were more likely to have a favorable modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1 at discharge (OR=7.98; CI95%=1.79, 35.71). Conclusions: Our data indicate a reduction in severe residual symptoms at discharge and improved functional status at discharge for patients presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis from 1999 to 2009, as compared with 1988-1998.
Hypertension following primary coarctation repair affects up to a third of subjects. A number of studies suggest that future hypertension risk is reduced if primary repair is performed at a younger age.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of future medical treatment for hypertension depending on age of primary coarctation repair.
This study was carried out at a tertiary paediatric cardiology referral centre. Retrospective database evaluation of children aged <16 years undergoing primary surgical coarctation repair between October, 2005 and October, 2014 was carried out. Patients with complex heart diseases were excluded. The following age groups were considered: neonate (⩽28 days), infant (>28 days and ⩽12 months), and children (>12 months). Main outcome measure is the need for long-term anti-hypertensive medication. The risk for re-coarctation was also evaluated.
A total of 87 patients were analysed: 60 neonates, 17 infants, 10 children. Among them, 6.7% neonates, 29.4% infants, and 40% children required long-term anti-hypertensive medications. Group differences were statistically significant (p=0.004). After adjustment for type of repair, the risk of long-term anti-hypertensive therapy was 4.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2–16.9, p=0.025) and 10.5 times (95% confidence interval 2.6–42.3, p=0.001) higher if primary repair was carried out in infancy and childhood, respectively, compared with neonates. Among all, 13 patients developed re-coarctation: 21.7% in the neonatal group, 5.9% in the infant group, and 20% in the child group. We could not demonstrate a significant difference between these proportions or calculate a reliable risk for developing re-coarctation.
Risk of medical treatment for hypertension was lowest when primary repair was carried out during the neonatal period, rising 10-fold if first operated on as a child. Knowing the likelihood of hypertension development depending on age of primary repair is useful for long-term surveillance and counselling.
In Shakespeare's Fugitive Politics, I have argued that the political in Shakespeare is more important than politics. In making this case with readings of plays that span the trajectory of Shakespeare's dramatic career, I hope to have demonstrated that his plays were incubators for a political philosophy that considered the expression of politics to be evanescent rather than formal, fugitive rather than sustained, and antagonistic rather than consensual. Each of the book's chapters has demonstrated that Shakespeare imagined sovereign power as a productive force for political contestation and that the consequence of the sovereign exception was a divided absolutism – the breach that reallocates sovereign power to enable alternative political communities.
The political in the plays examined in Shakespeare's Fugitive Politics coalesces into an archive of dramatic characters and theatrical action. Characters discover themselves to be the subject of time and history, or, in the Bastard's own language from King John, find themselves ‘bastard[s] to the time’ (1.1.207) – a process of exposure to the political as it is remembered and recreated on the stage in Shakespeare's London. Mark Wenman describes this type of exposure as ‘a certain precedence of human freedom’ and an indication of the ‘priority of constituent power’, even in the face of sovereign power that renders life bare. Each chapter discovers fugitive politics in Shakespeare through close readings of plays that expose the imbricated relationship between fractured sovereignty and forms of non-sovereign agency central to creating new forms of political life – a funeral effigy in Julius Caesar, friendship in Coriolanus, bureaucratic sovereignty in King John, touch in Henry V, and volatile bodies in Titus Andronicus and The Winter's Tale. This productive dissensus between sovereign power and non-sovereign agency forges new ways of being in the early modern world responsive to a democratic calculus augmenting power beyond the bare life and the sovereign exception. Echoing Hannah Arendt and Thomas Paine on political action, fugitive politics enables subjects to become political actors and to possess the power to reimagine the world and begin it anew. This is what we see in the closing scene of The Winter's Tale with Hermione's resurrection, and this is what we see in Henry V with Catherine's sugar touch.
What government has to do must be identical with what the state should be […] To govern according to the principle of raison d’État is to arrange things so that the state becomes sturdy and permanent, so that it becomes wealthy, and so that it becomes strong in the face of everything that may destroy it.
Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics
In a word, bureaucracy can itself function as the key locus of a radical movement.
Eric Santner, The Royal Remains
It seems to me that something akin to this alluring confusion also characterizes modern bureaucracies. Is it possible that maligned structures are also powerfully attractive to us, that bureaucratic entanglements are also sometimes occasions for enchantment? When enchanted, one is intensively engaged, and dealing with a bureaucracy might very well require high levels of attentiveness.
Jane Bennett, The Enchantment of Modern Life
In Chapter 3, we saw how touch in Henry V is an acknowledgement of sovereignty's fractured condition; the royal touch fails to suture the divisibility at the core of sovereign power in the play. Catherine's ‘sugar touch’ (5.2.255) can be read as a usurpation and inversion of the efficacy of royal touch – reducing the majesty of absolute power and exposing its tactical responses to agitating subjects that escape the forceful logic of the sovereign exception. Shakespeare's less popular and rarely performed play King John (1596) is also concerned with divided sovereignty, and, as if anticipating the diminutive tactility of a ‘little touch of Harry in the night’ (4.0.47), the play also expresses its concern about sovereign force through the metaphor of touch. John's legitimacy on the English throne is jeopardised because of the claims of the young Prince Arthur, John's oldest brother's son. In a response to the French king Philip's willingness to forego Arthur's rightful claim in order to ally with John, Constance, Arthur's mother and surrogate for her son's claim to power, says, ‘You have beguiled me with a counterfeit / Resembling majesty, which, being touched and tried, / Proves valueless’ (3.1.25–7). Calling the royal union a trick that only appears majestic, Constance's rejection of Philip and John's alliance evokes tactility – ‘being touched and tried’ – as one way to determine kingship's legitimacy.
Picture Macbeth alone on stage, staring intently into empty space. ‘Is this a dagger which I see before me?’ he asks, grasping decisively at the air. On one hand, this is a quintessentially theatrical question. At once an object and a vector, the dagger describes the possibility of knowledge (‘Is this a dagger’) in specifically visual and spatial terms (‘which I see before me’). At the same time, Macbeth is posing a quintessentially philosophical question, one that assumes knowledge to be both conditional and experiential, and that probes the relationship between certainty and perception as well as intention and action. It is from this shared ground of art and inquiry, of theatre and theory, that this series advances its basic premise: Shakespeare is philosophical.
It seems like a simple enough claim. But what does it mean exactly, beyond the parameters of this specific moment in Macbeth? Does it mean that Shakespeare had something we could think of as his own philosophy? Does it mean that he was influenced by particular philosophical schools, texts and thinkers? Does it mean, conversely, that modern philosophers have been influenced by him, that Shakespeare's plays and poems have been, and continue to be, resources for philosophical thought and speculation?
The answer is yes all around. These are all useful ways of conceiving a philosophical Shakespeare and all point to lines of inquiry that this series welcomes. But Shakespeare is philosophical in a much more fundamental way as well. Shakespeare is philosophical because the plays and poems actively create new worlds of knowledge and new scenes of ethical encounter. They ask big questions, make bold arguments, and develop new vocabularies in order to think what might otherwise be unthinkable. Through both their scenarios and their imagery, the plays and poems engage the qualities of consciousness, the consequences of human action, the phenomenology of motive and attention, the conditions of personhood, and the relationship among different orders of reality and experience.
I shall be heal'd, if that my King but touch, The evil is not yours: my sorrow sings, Mine is the evill, but the cure, the Kings.
Robert Herrick, ‘To the King, to cure the Evill’, Hesperides, 1648
I touch you to touch you again. To touch is not to know.
Erin Manning, Politics of Touch
Henry V is a play that explores the contours of political sovereignty. To argue this, however, is to risk trying to make exceptional what by now has become something of a critical commonplace. Reflecting on royal power in act 4, Henry himself expresses a fundamental limit of sovereignty to Michael Williams, memorably asserting, ‘every subject's duty is the King's, but every subject's soul is his own’ (4.1.181–2). Indeed, that Henry V is the final play in a dramatic cycle about the education of the future king remains a critically compelling way of reading and teaching it. Henry's reformation from ‘sweet wag’ (1.2.52) of the taverns in 1 Henry IV to King Henry at Agincourt in Henry V appears to ennoble absolute sovereignty, making it both benign and seductive to the English nation. Benign sovereignty is best illustrated at the end of act 4 after the Battle of Agincourt, when Henry learns that ‘the number of our English dead’ (4.8.96) included ‘Edward the Duke of York, the Earl of Suffolk, / Sir Richard Keighley, Davy Gam Esquire; / None else of name, and of all other men / But five-and-twenty’ (97–100). Exeter's response to the news, ‘’Tis wonderful’ (107), reinforces the benign nature of Henry's kingship. The play registers absolutism's seductive force famously in act 5, when Henry woos Catherine in both French and English: ‘Now fie upon my false French! By mine honour, in true English, I love thee, Kate’ (5.2.206–9).
The play, however, actually begins its seduction early in act 1, as the new king navigates the paradox of absolute sovereign power. In the prelude to war with France, Henry appeals to Canterbury and Ely to justify the invasion. Henry asks, ‘May I with right and conscience make this claim?’ (1.1.96).