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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health and social care workers have faced unprecedented professional demands, all of which are likely to have placed considerable strain on their psychological well-being.
To measure the national prevalence of mental health symptoms within healthcare staff, and identify individual and organisational predictors of well-being.
The COVID-19 Staff Wellbeing Survey is a longitudinal online survey of psychological well-being among health and social care staff in Northern Ireland. The survey included four time points separated by 3-month intervals; time 1 (November 2020; n = 3834) and time 2 (February 2021; n = 2898) results are presented here. At time 2, 84% of respondents had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The survey included four validated psychological well-being questionnaires (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress and insomnia), as well as demographic and organisational measures.
At time 1 and 2, a high proportion of staff reported moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression (30–36%), anxiety (26–27%), post-traumatic stress (30–32%) and insomnia (27–28%); overall, significance tests and effect size data suggested psychological well-being was generally stable between November 2020 and February 2021 for health and social care staff. Multiple linear regression models indicated that perceptions of less effective communication within their organisation predicted greater levels of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress and insomnia.
This study highlights the need to offer psychological support to all health and social care staff, and to communicate with staff regularly, frequently and clearly regarding COVID-19 to help protect staff psychological well-being.
The Quaternary Isotope Laboratory (QIL) at the University of Washington was launched in 1969 and directed by Minze Stuiver until his retirement in 1998. Here we review some of the scientific work undertaken in the QIL and the memories of some of Minze’s former students and colleagues.
This quality improvement project aimed to assess the adherence of a hospital psychiatric liaison team's documentation of assessments to the Psychiatric Liaison Accreditation Network (PLAN) standards framework; to identify areas of improvement; to identify barriers to and improve adherence.
Data were extracted from 27 randomly selected patient assessments from 01/07/2020 to 31/08/2020 and then 27 assessments from 01/10/2020 to 30/11/2020 for re-audit.
Quantitative data was collected by calculating the percentage of assessments which documented each specific aspect of PLAN standards.
Qualitative data including attitudes specifically towards writing to patients was gathered from 1:1 discussions with members of staff.
Interventions between rounds of audit:
Presentation of results of 1st data collection to team in November 2020 followed by discussion
Emailed instructions to create a template based on PLAN standards for assessments to staff
Lobbied for Cerner access at liaison team office to facilitate use of above
Quantitative – overall improvements were seen in adherence to all aspects of documentation of assessments including collateral history (from 23% to 67%) past medical history (30% to 70%) and acknowledging the patient/carer perspective (46% to 74%). Some improvement was seen in offering written correspondence to patients (0% to 20%).
Qualitative – the majority of comments regarding writing to patients were positive, with no staff members opposing the standard (“it is best practice”, “should become a habit”). However, some barriers were identified including increased workload (“requires more editing”, “could take a lot more time”).
Team adherence to PLAN standards for documentation of assessments was improved through low intensity interventions. Overall adherence was high, however certain areas leave space for improvement. The audit facilitated conversations around writing to patients on discharge, both in the form of formal gathering of qualitative data and informal discussions between staff. Attitudes towards writing these letters were positive and some improvement was seen between audits. Ongoing audit activity aims to further improve adherence and monitor improvements.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
Cognitive tasks are used to probe neuronal activity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect signs of aberrant cognitive functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). However, nonlinear (inverted-U-shaped) associations between neuronal activity and task difficulty can lead to misinterpretation of group differences between patients and healthy comparison subjects (HCs). In this paper, we evaluated a novel method for correcting these misinterpretations based on conditional performance analysis.
Participants included 25 HCs and 27 SZs who performed a working memory (WM) task (N-back) with 5 load conditions while undergoing fMRI. Neuronal activity was regressed onto: 1) task load (i.e., parametric task levels), 2) marginal task performance (i.e., performance averaged over all load conditions), or 3) conditional task performance (i.e., performance within each load condition).
In most regions of interest, conditional performance analysis uniquely revealed inverted-U-shaped neuronal activity in both SZs and HCs. After accounting for conditional performance differences between groups, we observed few difference in both the pattern and level of neuronal activity between SZs and HCs within regions that are classically associated with WM functioning (e.g., posterior dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortices). However, SZs did show aberrant activity within the anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Interpretations of differences in neuronal activity between groups, and of associations between neuronal activity and performance, should be considered within the context of task performance. Whether conditional performance-based differences reflect compensation, dedifferentiation, or other processes is not a question that is easily resolved by examining activation and performance data alone.
This study focuses on Ravenna during the period from its fall into the hands of the Lombards in 751 to the decline of Byzantine power in the West from the mid-eleventh century. It argues that Ravenna shared common features with a number of other cities in the upper Adriatic, for example Comacchio, Venice and Zadar. The city maintained its earlier economic and artistic ties with Istria and Dalmatia, but also with Constantinople. The ties to Byzantium were based on admiration, nostalgia or identity and were used as part of strategy of resistance to threatening outside forces. However, the increasing dominance of local landowning elite led to the local autonomy and the strongest Byzantine influence remained the social and cultural cachet of the empire.
Over recent decades, Chinese giant salamanders Andrias spp. have declined dramatically across much of their range. Overexploitation and habitat degradation have been widely cited as the cause of these declines. To investigate the relative contribution of each of these factors in driving the declines, we carried out standardized ecological and questionnaire surveys at 98 sites across the range of giant salamanders in China. We did not find any statistically significant differences between water parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, salinity, alkalinity, hardness and flow rate) recorded at sites where giant salamanders were detected by survey teams and/or had been recently seen by local respondents, and sites where they were not detected and/or from which they had recently been extirpated. Additionally, we found direct and indirect evidence that the extraction of giant salamanders from the wild is ongoing, including within protected areas. Our results support the hypothesis that the decline of giant salamanders across China has been primarily driven by overexploitation. Data on water parameters may be informative for the establishment of conservation breeding programmes, an initiative recommended for the conservation of these species.
Disparities exist in the health, livelihood, and opportunities for the 46-60 million people living in America’s rural communities. Rural communities across the United States need a new energy and focus concentrated around health and health care that allows for the designing capturing, and spreading of existing and new innovations. This paper aims to provide a framework for policy solutions to build a healthier rural America describing both the current state of rural health policy and the policies and practices in states that could be used as a national model for positive change.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ethical dilemma of prioritising financial resources to expensive biological therapies. For this purpose, the four principles of biomedical ethics formulated by ethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress were used as a theoretical framework. Based on arguments of justice, Beauchamp and Childress advocate for a health care system organised in line with the Danish system. Notably, our study was carried out in a Danish setting.
To quantify the impact of clinical guidance and rapid respiratory and meningitis/encephalitis multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) testing on the management of infants.
Before-and-after intervention study.
Tertiary-care children’s hospital.
Infants ≤90 days old presenting with fever or hypothermia to the emergency department (ED).
The study spanned 3 periods: period 1, January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014; period 2, January 1, 2015, through April 30, 2018; and period 3, May 1, 2018, through June 15, 2019. During period 1, no standardized clinical guideline had been established and no rapid pathogen testing was available. During period 2, a clinical guideline was implemented, but no rapid testing was available. During period 3, a guideline was in effect, plus mPCR testing using the BioFire FilmArray respiratory panel 2 (RP 2) and the meningitis encephalitis panel (MEP). Outcomes included antimicrobial and ancillary test utilization, length of stay (LOS), admission rate, 30-day mortality. Outcomes were compared across periods using Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson tests and interrupted time series analysis.
Overall 5,317 patients were included: 2,514 in period 1, 2,082 in period 2, and 721 in period 3. Over the entire study period, we detected reductions in the use of chest radiographs, lumbar punctures, LOS, and median antibiotic duration. After adjusting for temporal trends, we observed that the introduction of the guideline was associated with reductions in ancillary tests and lumbar punctures. Use of mPCR testing with the febrile infant clinical guideline was associated with additional reductions in ancillary testing for all patients and a higher proportion of infants 29–60 days old being managed without antibiotics.
Use of mPCR testing plus a guideline for young infant evaluation in the emergency department was associated with less antimicrobial and ancillary test utilization compared to the use of a guideline alone.
This session explored the compatibility of some of the world's most prominent international organizations and legal regimes with three Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): SDG 5 (Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls); SDG 10 (Reduce inequality within and among countries); and SDG 16 (Promote peaceful and inclusive societies, access to justice, and accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels). Panelists reflected on whether international legal rules and organizations addressed or hindered these goals across three dimensions.
By the last quarter of the seventh century the Byzantine areas of Italy had experienced over a century of upheaval. Within decades of their first invasion of Italy in 568 the Lombards had established a powerful kingdom consisting of the territories north of the river Po, Tuscany and the two outlying duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. The empire was confined to the areas of Rome and its duchy, Ravenna, and the neighbouring areas of the exarchate and the Pentapolis, approximating to the present-day Romagna and Marche, and a few coastal areas elsewhere. The Byzantines had only been able to hold on to their possessions by initiating a thoroughgoing militarisation of society, which involved the concentration of land in military hands and the concentration of authority in the hands of the commander-in-chief in Ravenna (the exarch) and his subordinates (duces and magistri militum at a provincial level and tribuni in the localities). In many areas, such as the Roman Campania, this process was accompanied by a steady shift of population, as settlement became concentrated on military strongholds and refuges, usually located on promontories. Although the pressure eased somewhat in the seventh century, Liguria and most of the remaining settlements on the Venetian mainland were lost to the Lombards in the reign of King Rothari (636–52), and the duchy of Benevento made continual encroachments in the south, accelerating after the unsuccessful expedition of Emperor Constans II (641–68) to southern Italy in 663–8. Internal tensions were reflected in a series of revolts, the determined opposition led by the papacy to Constans II’s monothelite doctrines and a bitter conflict between the sees of Rome and Ravenna over the same emperor’s grant of ecclesiastical autonomy (autokephalia) to the latter in 666. In two letters addressed to his successor, Pope Agatho (678–81) bemoaned the dislocation caused by the ‘gentiles’ and complained that lack of food forced the clergy to work the land.
The late Pleistocene–early Holocene archaeological record of the interior Pacific Northwest is dominated by what has been regionally referred to as the Western Stemmed Tradition (WST). While various efforts have attempted to clarify the chronology of this tradition, these have largely focused on data from the Great Basin and have been disproportionately preoccupied with establishing the beginning of the tradition due to its temporal overlap with Clovis materials. Specifically focusing on the Columbia Plateau, we apply a series of Bayesian chronological models to create concise estimates of the most likely beginning, end, and span of the WST. We then further explore its chronology by modeling its temporal span under various parameters and criteria so as to better identify places in the chronology that need further work and those that are robust regardless of data iteration. Our analysis revealed four major findings: (1) WST conservatively dates between 13,000 and 11,000 cal BP, likely extending to ~13,500 cal BP; (2) the most problematic period for WST is its termination; (3) the WST is incredibly long-lived compared to roughly contemporary Paleoindian traditions; and (4) the WST was seemingly unaffected by the onset of the Younger Dryas.
What happens after longstanding policies are overthrown in fierce political battles, events scholars refer to as punctuated equilibrium? Do these new policies remain static and unchanging until the next big punctuation, or do they continue to change in explainable and predictable ways? In this article, we develop a model of postpunctuation policy change grounded in theories of boundedly rational decision-making by policymakers. Uncertain about how well the new policy will perform, policymakers learn to rely on competing interest groups for information or, under certain circumstances, look to other political jurisdictions for cues on how their policies ought to be further refined. We test our predictions by studying changes in state charter school laws from 1996 to 2014. We find evidence of policy change, and even convergence, across states suggesting that policies after punctuation do change in ways explained as reactions to political pressures in an environment fraught with uncertainty.
The capture of volatile radioactive iodine-129 is an important process for nuclear fission. Biphenyl-bridged wrinkled mesoporous silica shows similar performance for iodine sequestration to commercial Ag-mordenite and avoids the use of expensive silver. The biphenyl-wrinkled mesoporous silica nanoparticles function as a scaffold for biphenyl groups and also as a fluorescent indicator for the loading of iodine. The nanoparticles have a surface area of 973 m2/g and the biphenyl molecules form an electron charge-transfer complex with iodine. Iodine was loaded into the biphenyl-bridged wrinkled mesoporous silica (BWMS) at 19 ± 0.2 % loading by mass.
Rapidly advancing technology often pulls the regulatory field along as it evolves to incorporate new concepts, better tools, and more finely honed equipment. When the area impacted by the technological advancement is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a gap develops between the technology and the guidelines that govern its application. Subsequently, there are challenges in determining appropriate regulatory pathways for evolving products at the initial research and developmental stages. Myriad factors necessitate several rounds of iterative review and the involvement of multiple divisions within the FDA. To better understand the regulatory science issues roiling around the area of additive manufacturing of medical products, a group of experts, led by a Clinical and Translational Science Award working group, convened the Regulatory Science to Advance Precision Medicine at the Fall Forum to discuss some of the current regulatory science roadblocks.
Documenting leads and lags in terrestrial records of past climate change is critical to understanding the behavior of Earth’s natural climate system and making reliable predictions of future climate conditions. However, uncertainties of several hundred years in age models make it difficult to distinguish synchronicity and feedbacks in paleo archives. In lakes this is often due to the lack of terrestrial macrofossils in climate-sensitive locations, such as high alpine or dryland settings. The potential of radiocarbon (14C) dating of pollen has long been recognized, but the difficulty of cleanly separating pollen from other kinds of organic carbon has limited its usefulness. Here we report 14C ages on pollen separated by flow cytometry, from a set of closely spaced samples from Mono Lake, California. The accuracy of the pollen ages is tested using well-dated bracketing tephras, the South Mono and North Mono-Inyo tephras. In spite of the purity of the sorted samples, the pollen dates are older than the bounding tephras by ~400 yr, similar to some other pollen-dating studies. While improvements in sample preparation protocols are planned, understanding the geological processes involved in the production, preservation, and deposition of pollen at each site will be critical to developing robust high-resolution age models.