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Migraine, including episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM), is a common neurological disorder that imparts a substantial health burden.
Understand the characteristics and treatment of EM and CM from a population-based perspective.
This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study utilized administrative data from Alberta. Among those with a migraine diagnostic code, CM and EM were identified by an algorithm and through exclusion, respectively; characteristics and migraine medication use were examined with descriptive statistics.
From 79,076 adults with a migraine diagnostic code, 12,700 met the criteria for CM and 54,686 were considered to have EM. The majority of migraineurs were female, the most common comorbidity was depression, and individuals with CM had more comorbidities than EM. A larger proportion of individuals with CM versus EM were dispensed acute (80.6%: CM; 63.4%: EM) and preventative (58.0%: CM; 28.9%: EM) migraine medications over 1 year. Among those with a dispensation, individuals with CM had more acute (13.6 ± 32.2 vs. 4.6 ± 10.9 [mean ± standard deviation], 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7-8.3), and preventative (12.6 ± 43.5 vs. 5.0 ± 12.6, 95% CI 6.9-8.4) migraine medication dispensations than EM, over 1-year. Opioids were commonly used in both groups (proportion of individuals dispensed an opioid over 1-year: 53.1%: CM; 25.7%: EM).
Individuals with EM and CM displayed characteristics and medication use patterns consistent with other reports. Application of this algorithm for CM may be a useful and efficient means of identifying subgroups of migraine using routinely collected health data in Canada.
There is increasing evidence that domestic violence (DV) is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. The level of risk and its contribution to the overall burden of suicidal behaviour among men and women has not been quantified in South Asia. We carried out a large case-control study to examine the association between DV and self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.
Cases (N = 291) were patients aged ⩾18 years, admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kandy Sri Lanka for self-poisoning. Sex and age frequency matched controls were recruited from the hospital's outpatient department (N = 490) and local population (N = 450). Exposure to DV was collected through the Humiliation, Afraid, Rape, Kick questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the association between DV and self-poisoning, and population attributable fractions were calculated.
Exposure to at least one type of DV within the previous 12 months was strongly associated with self-poisoning for women [adjusted OR (AOR) 4.08, 95% CI 1.60–4.78] and men (AOR 2.52, 95% CI 1.51–4.21), compared to those reporting no abuse. Among women, the association was strongest for physical violence (AOR 14.07, 95% CI 5.87–33.72), whereas among men, emotional abuse showed the highest risk (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.57–4.82). PAF% for exposure to at least one type of DV was 38% (95% CI 32–43) in women and 22% (95% CI 14–29) in men.
Multi-sectoral interventions to address DV including enhanced identification in health care settings, community-based strategies, and integration of DV support and psychological services may substantially reduce suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka.