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This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO2 sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with 3He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the 3He(d,α)1H reaction. 3He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700°C and 1000°C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900°C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects.
We have investigated the emission properties of InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots in the mid-infrared. The emission relies on the intraband transitions in the valence band of the quantum dots. We first show that third-harmonic generation can be observed. The frequency tripling efficiency is enhanced by the resonances between the pump excitation and the quantum dot intraband transitions. A giant third-order nonlinear susceptibility is measured for one dot plane. The narrow spectral dependence of the nonlinear susceptibility is well explained by simulations which account for the three-dimensional confinement potential. We secondly show that the mid-infrared spontaneous emission between hole confined states can be observed under an interband optical pumping. The spontaneous emission involves transitions between either the ground and excited states or between excited states. These measurements demonstrate the potentiality of self-assembled quantum dots for mid-infrared emission.
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