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To develop a risk score for surgical site infections (SSIs) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
A derivation sample of 7,090 consecutive isolated or combined CABG patients and 2 validation samples (2,660 total patients).
Predictors of SSIs were identified by multivariable analyses from the derivation sample, and a risk stratification tool (additive and logistic) for all SSIs after CABG (acronym, ASSIST) was created. Accuracy of prediction was evaluated with C-statistic and compared 1:1 (using the Hanley-McNeil method) with most relevant risk scores for SSIs after CABG. Both internal (1,000 bootstrap replications) and external validation were performed.
SSIs occurred in 724 (10.2%) cases and 2 models of ASSIST were created, including either baseline patient characteristics alone or combined with other perioperative factors. Female gender, body mass index >29.3 kg/m2, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, extracardiac arteriopathy, angina at rest, and nonelective surgical priority were predictors of SSIs common to both models, which outperformed (P < .0001) 6 specific risk scores (10 models) for SSIs after CABG. Although ASSIST performed differently in the 2 validation samples, in both, as well as in the derivation data set, the combined model outweighed (albeit not always significantly) the preoperative-only model, both for additive and logistic ASSIST.
In the derivation data set, ASSIST outperformed specific risk scores in predicting SSIs after CABG. The combined model had a higher accuracy of prediction than the preoperative-only model both in the derivation and validation samples. Additive and logistic ASSIST showed equivalent performance.
The purpose of this study was to determine the cause, onset, clinical outcome and treatment of aortic insufficiency developing during treatment of complex cardiac anomalies. Aortic insufficiency associated with ventricular septal defect is a well-recognized entity. Very few studies, in contrast, have addressed the development of aortic insufficiency in the presence of more complex cardiac anomalies. Ten patients were selected from two clinical centers. All patients were diagnosed with a major cardiac anomaly requiring surgical treatment. Each patient developed aortic insufficiency requiring a surgical treatment of the valve after correction or palliation of their cardiac defect. There were six males, and mean age for the series was 17 years (range 5.5 to 33 years). All patients were initially operated for repair (eight patients) or palliation (two patients) of their congenital anomaly. Five patients had tetralogy of Fallot, one had tetralogy associated with pulmonary atresia, and two patients had double outlet right ventricle, and two had complete transposition. The degree of aortic insufficiency, the amount of pulmonary stenosis present before the original procedure and the diameter of the aortic root measured before the aortic surgical procedure on the valve were assessed by angiography and echocardiography. The mean time between the last surgical procedure and the appearance of aortic regurgitation was three years, with a mean time between the last intervention and the aortic procedure of 7.3 years. The etiology of the insufficiency was explained by prolapse of an aortic leaflet in three patients. Four patients had annular dilation with central regurgitation, two patients had traumatic perforation of a leaflet, one patient had lesions consistent with endocarditis. Eight patients had dilation of the aortic root. Surgical procedures included five replacements of the aortic valve, three aortic valvoplasties, one aortic valvar replacement associated with a Glenn shunt, and one Bentall procedure. One patient died two months following an aortic valvar replacement. All patients were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography before discharged. The two main causes of aortic regurgitation, leaflet prolapse and annular dilation are age-related complications. Most patients had dilation of the aortic root from longstanding increases in aortic flow. Early repair of congenital anomalies may decrease these complications.
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