In recent decades, surface melting on the inland Greenland ice sheet has increased, leading to significant meltwater-refreezing in the snow and firn. Increased knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of these melt features (i.e., ice layers) is needed to help estimate future global sea-level rise. Here, using a combination of microscopy and spectroscopy, we investigate the size, shape, location, and chemical compositions of inclusions in 12 ice layers of the SIGMA-A ice core in the northwestern Greenland ice sheet (78°03′06″N, 67°37′42″W, 1490 m a.s.l.). In the ice layers, we found inclusions exceeding 30 μm diameter that could only be formed by melting–refreezing, which we classify into columnar-, particle-, and rod-like inclusions. We propose that the smaller columnar- and particle-like inclusions of solid Na2SO4⋅10H2O and CaSO4⋅2H2O form first, within the ice grains, followed by the larger rod-like inclusions of brines with mainly Na+ and Cl− in grain boundaries. Our results suggest a new proxy that may help identify past warm climates in deeper ice cores in Greenland and for studying future ice sheet melting behavior.