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We use second epoch images taken with WFPC2 on the HST and imaging polarimetry taken with the HST/ACS/HRC to explore the three dimensional structure of the circumstellar dust distribution around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris. Transverse motions, combined with radial velocities, provide a picture of the kinematics of the ejecta, including the total space motions. The fractional polarization and photometric colors provide an independent method of locating the physical position of the dust along the line-of-sight. Most of the individual arc-like features and clumps seen in the intensity image are also features in the fractional polarization map, and must be distinct geometric objects. The location of these features in the ejecta of VY CMa using kinematics and polarimetry agree well with each other, and strongly suggest they are the result of relatively massive ejections, probably associated with magnetic fields.
In 2002, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH; Chicago, Illinois) convened the Chicago-Area Neonatal MRSA Working Group (CANMWG) to discuss and compare approaches aimed at control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To better understand these issues on a regional level, the CDPH and the Evanston Department of Health and Human Services (EDHHS; Evanston, Illinois) began an investigation.
Survey to collect demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic data on individual cases and clusters of MRSA infection; an additional survey collected data on infection control practices.
Level III NICUs at Chicago-area hospitals.
Neonates and healthcare workers associated with the level III NICUs.
From June 2001 through September 2002, the participating hospitals reported all clusters of MRSA infection in their respective level III NICUs to the CDPH and the EDHHS.
Thirteen clusters of MRSA infection were detected in level III NICUs, and 149 MRSA-positive infants were reported. Infection control surveys showed that hospitals took different approaches for controlling MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
The CANMWG developed recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA colonization and infection in the NICU and agreed that recommendations should expand to include future data generated by further studies. Continuing partnerships between hospital infection control personnel and public health professionals will be crucial in honing appropriate guidelines for effective approaches to the management and control of MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
Recent excavations at the Cross Creek site (CA-SLO-1797) on the central coast of California revealed a stratigraphically discrete midden component dating between ca. 8350 and 7700 cal B.C., making it the oldest mainland shell midden on the west coast of North America. A large recovery volume revealed an assemblage dominated by grinding implements (handstones and milling slabs) and crude core and flake tools typical of California's Milling Stone horizon, but the Cross Creek findings extend the antiquity of Milling Stone back to the terminal Pleistocene. The tools and associated faunal remains suggest a gathering economy profoundly different from the terminal Pleistocene big-game hunting of interior North America. This variation is difficult to reconcile as a simple adaptive outgrowth from late Pleistocene hunting and may reflect a separate coastal migration route into the New World.
Heterologous gene expression in either (1) the
glycosylation-defective, mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell
line, Lec188.8.131.52, or (2) the presence of the α-glucosidase
inhibitor, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin facilitates
the trimming of N-linked glycans of glycoproteins to single
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues with endoglycosidase
H (endo H). Both approaches are somewhat inefficient, however,
with as little as 12% of the total protein being rendered
fully endo H-sensitive under these conditions. It is shown
here that the combined effects of these approaches on the
restriction of oligosaccharide processing are essentially
additive, thereby allowing the production of glycoproteins
that are essentially completely endo H-sensitive. The preparation
of a soluble chimeric form of CD58, the ligand of the human
T-cell surface recognition molecule CD2, illustrates the
usefulness of the combined approach when expression levels
are low or the deglycosylated protein is unstable at low
pH. The endo H-treated chimera produced crystals of space
group P3121 or P3221, and unit cell
dimensions a = b = 116.4 Å, c
= 51.4 Å α = β = 90°, γ = 120°,
that diffract to a maximum resolution of 1.8 Å.
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