To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary field founded on the premise that psychosocial factors, the central nervous system, and the immune system are intimately linked. Following publication of scientific evidence supporting this link, a number of animal and human studies have been published, both inside and outside the area of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. These studies support the existence of bidirectional feedback mechanisms operating between the brain and the immune system. To date, however, there is no all-encompassing model that predicts individual differences in the relationship among psychosocial factors, immunologic measures, and clinical disease progression in HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This variability in human response has been explained by a number of cofactors (host as well as environmental) that appear to accelerate the course of the disease.
Since psychosocial factors are highly amenable to behavioral interventions, several models for intervention research have been proposed to evaluate whether such interventions can enhance immune functioning, thereby curtailing disease progression. Examination of these interventions in the context of PNI and HIV-1 infection, however, is rather limited. Therefore, researchers and clinicians must not only consider conceptualizations and paradigms in this area of research, but also focus on empirically testable, theory-driven models that allow for the unique characteristics of individual patients.
Nutritional deficiencies are commonplace in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and recent research has indicated that nutritional factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 disease. Although nutritional deficiencies are unlikely to be the primary causative factor in disease progression, they may contribute to cognitive dysfunction, neurologic abnormalities, mood disturbance, and immune dysregulation associated with HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, deficiencies of specific micronutrients have been associated with increased risk of HIV-1–associated mortality. This article will briefly summarize the role of macronutrient deficiency, the interactions of specific micronutrient deficiencies with neuropsychiatrie functioning, and the role of these factors in HIV-1 disease progression. Since recent research has shown that normalization of many nutritional deficits and supplementation beyond normal levels are associated with improvements in neuropsychiatrie functioning, potential treatment implications will also be discussed.
Different lines of evidence suggest that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is complicated by a variety of adverse effects on neuroendocrine systems. Soon after the discovery of HIV-1, reports began to appear suggesting that a number of neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine activities were negatively impacted by this infection. In 1987 it was observed that fine-needle aspiration of the lung in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome resulted in syncopal reactions. Subsequently, an abnormality in the autonomic nervous system was reported in these patients. However, investigations in this area have remained limited due to the assumption that HIV-1–mediated activation of various endocrine systems was related to the major life stressor of living with a fatal disease. Evidence accumulated over the years has indicated, instead, that there are various other mechanisms in addition to life stressors that also play an important role in negatively impacting the neuroendocrine systems in this infection. This article examines various developments that have taken place in this area in order to provide avenues for future research.
The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–associated cognitive-motor disorder—either minor cognitive-motor disorder (MCMD) or HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)—is fraught with potential pitfalls for the clinician. Before making such a diagnosis, clinicians should exclude other etiologies by using neuroimaging, lumbar puncture, and serum chemistries to screen for opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections of the brain and meninges. Clinicians should also consider psychoneurotoxicity (caused from the use of psychoactive substances and prescribed medications) and psychopathology, such as mood, anxiety, and other disorders. In addition, a thorough medical history and physical examination, including a complete neurologic and neuropsychiatric mental status examination, are necessary for an accurate diagnosis. There is also a need for standardized neuropsychological and functional status tests, since the diagnostic criteria for these disorders are partly based on these criteria. Treatment targets should include subclinical cognitive-motor impairment and neuroprotection, as well as MCMD and HAD. Currently, zidovudine remains the best proven treatment for these disorders, but other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, show promise, and selected agents from these classes are being tested in clinical trials. Other areas that should be investigated are the modulation of inflammatory mediators (such as tumor necrosis factor α), neurotransmitter manipulation (especially of dopamine), and nutritional interventions.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.