To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To test the effect of a trusted Community Health Worker (CHW) support model to increase accessibility, feasibility and completion of COVID-19 home-testing in Native American and Latino communities. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a multi-site pragmatic randomized controlled trial among adult Native Americans and Latinos from the Flathead reservation in Montana and Yakima Valley in Washington. Participants were block randomized by site location and age to either an active or passive study arm. Participants in the active arm received assistance with online COVID-19 test kit registration and virtual swabbing support from CHWs, while the passive study arm received the standard-of-care support from the COVID-19 home testing kit vendor. Simple and multivariate logistic regression modeled the association between home-testing distribution mechanism and test completion. Multivariate models included community and sex as covariates. Descriptive feedback was collected in a post-test survey. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, 63% of the 268 enrolled participants completed COVID-19 tests, and 50% completed tests yielding a valid result. Active arm participants had significantly higher odds of test completion (OR 1.66, 95% CI: [1.01, 2.75], p-value=0.04). Differences were most pronounced among adults ≥60 years, with 84% completing testing kits in the active arm, compared to 58% in the passive arm (p=0.07). Ease of use and not having to leave home were top positive aspects of the home-based test while transporting and mailing samples to lab and long/overwhelming instructions were cited as negative aspects. Most test completers (93%) were satisfied with their experience and 95% found CHW assistance useful. Sample expiration and insufficient identifiers were top causes of non-valid test results. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: While test completion rates were low in both study arms, the CHW support led to a higher COVID-19 test completion rate, particularly among older adults. Still, CHW support alone does not fully eliminate testing barriers. Socio-economic differences must be accounted for in future product development for home-based testing to improve health equity.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Despite efforts to improve COVID-19 health outcomes through testing and vaccination, SARS-CoV-2 has exacerbated health disparities in underserved populations. Through this study we examined socio-contextual factors impacting decisions to test for COVID-19 among Native Americans in the Flathead Reservation and Hispanics in the Yakima Valley. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A series of 28 key informant interviews and 6 focus groups (N=39 focus group participants) were completed with community and tribal leaders using an interview guide informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Social Contextual Factor Frameworks. The interview guide was designed to examine the socio-contextual factors impacting decisions to test for COVID-19 among Native Americans and Hispanics in the Northwest. A codebook was developed to apply deductive coding to informant responses, followed by an inductive, constant comparison approach. Three analysts met to refine the codebook and conduct inter-rater agreement. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Five themes (social, cultural, health, religious and political factors) were identified that impacted testing for COVID-19. For social factors, participants discussed the influence of families and friends and unfair employment practices influencing decisions to test. Cultural factors included deep rooted distrust for the government and historical trauma. Health factors participants reported included the importance of testing to save lives, distrust for medical system, and health communications around COVID-19 affecting decisions to test. There was some interaction between religious and political factors. While participants mentioned beliefs in putting things in God’s hands, some decisions to test seemed to be affected by their political views. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Several socio-cultural factors influence decisions to test for COVID-19. Understanding the community’s perception of COVID-19 testing is critical for successful implementation of preventive strategies.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted health systems and exposed disparities in access to health care among underserved populations. We examined how the pandemic shaped social, mental, and physical health among Native American and Latino communities in rural and underserved areas. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, and Social Contextual Factor frameworks, we developed interview guides to examine perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic on social, mental, and physical health among community members. Stakeholders of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation in Montana and the Hispanic/Latinx population in Yakima Valley in Washington were selected through purposeful community-engagement. A total of six focus group discussions and 30 key informant interviews were administered in both communities. A codebook was developed and deductive coding was applied to informant responses, followed by an inductive, constant comparison approach. The codebook was further refined and inter-rater agreement was completed by three analysts. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four themes were highlighted as areas impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic (mental and physical health, family dynamics, and social disruptions) with few differences among geographic areas or between focus group (n=39) and key informant (n=28) participants. Perceived impacts on mental health included increased stress, anxiety, and depression, while pandemic-related lifestyle or family changes impacted physical health. Participants reported changes to family routines and dynamics due to staying home, social distancing, and more frequent interactions inside or limited interactions outside the household respectively. Social distruptions reported included impacts on finances, employment, and household staples, though participants highlighted how many community members stepped up to help those in need. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic had similar impacts on two geographically distinct underserved communities in Montana and Washington. Understanding the community’s experience with the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to identify strategies to support families, community needs, and mental and physical health in underserved communities.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Test the effects of a community health worker supported model to deliver home-based COVID-19 testing in the Yakima Valley (Washington) and Flathead Reservation (Montana) METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A pragmatic, randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effects of a community health worker supported model to deliver home-based COVID-19 testing in the Yakima Valley (Washington) and Flathead Reservation (Montana) vs. a modified direct-to-consumer. 400 participants will be enrolled, 200 from each community. Outcomes include comparing the number of completed testing kits as well as the number of testing kits with successful (detected vs not-detected) results. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The poster presents preliminary results from 191 participants, blinded to study assignment. To date, 53% of enrolled participants returned a sample for testing and 39% received a usable (detected or not-detected) result. Our populations experienced a high-rate (16%) of sample errors, required 28 replacement kits and had 20 participants randomized to the control arm receive the intervention to ensure participants received testing during the pandemic. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Home-based testing models are build for those who are proficient in verbal and written English, have high tech. literacy and continuous access to internet. For home-based testing to have similar success rates as white Americans, cultural and demographic differences and disparities will need to be accounted for in development and implementation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.