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The oceans have a huge capability to store, release, and transport heat, water, and various chemical species on timescales from seasons to centuries. Their transports affect global energy, water, and biogeochemical cycles and are crucial elements of Earth’s climate system. Ocean variability, as represented, for example, by sea surface temperature (SST) variations, can result in anomalous diabatic heating or cooling of the overlying atmosphere, which can in turn alter atmospheric circulation in such a way as to feedback on ocean thermal and current structures to modify the original SST variations. Ocean–atmosphere interactions in one ocean basin can also influence remote regions via interbasin teleconnections that can trigger responses having both local and far-field impacts. This chapter highlights the defining aspects of the climate in individual ocean basins, including mean states, seasonal cycles, interannual-to-interdecadal variability, and interactions with other basins. Key components of the global and tropical ocean observing system are also described.
Our purpose was to determine the intensive care units’ (ICU’s) medical staff surge capacity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Spring 2020 in Spain.
A multicenter retrospective survey was performed addressing the medical specialties present in the ICUs and the increase in bed capacity during this period.
Sixty-seven centers (62.04%) answered the questionnaire. The ICU bed capacity during the pandemic outbreak increased by 160% (95% confidence interval [CI], 128.97-191.03%). The average number of beds per intensive care medicine (ICM) specialist was 1.5 ± 0.60 and 3.71 ± 2.44 beds/specialist before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Non-ICM specialists and residents were present in 50 (74.63%) and 23 (34.3%) ICUs during the outbreak, respectively. The number of physicians (ICM and non-ICM residents and specialists) in the ICU increased by 89.40% (95% CI, 64.26114.53%). The increase in ICM specialists was, however, 4.94% (95% CI, −1.35-11.23%). Most non-ICM physicians were anesthetists, followed by pediatricians and cardiologists.
The majority of ICUs in our study were able to rapidly expand critical care capacity by adapting areas outside of the normal ICU to manage critically ill patients, and by extending the critical care staff with noncritical care physicians working as force multipliers.
Although it is known that certain emotion regulation processes produce a buffering effect on the relationship between life events and well-being, this issue has been poorly studied in the elderly population. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test and confirm a comprehensive model of the impact that past life events have on older adults’ psychological distress, exploring the possible mediating roles of emotion regulation processes. These include rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth.
In this cross-sectional study, 387 people over 60 years old residing in the community were assessed on life events, physical functioning, emotion regulation variables, psychological well-being, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The structural model tested achieved a satisfactory fit to the data, explaining 73% of the variance of older adults’ psychological distress. In addition, the main results suggest possible mediation effects of both the physical functioning and the emotional variables: rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth in the face of hardship.
These findings confirm the importance of emotion regulation processes in the final stages of life. They reveal the various adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms that underlie the relationship between life events and psychological distress. The findings suggest – both in the explanatory models of psychological well-being and in psychotherapeutic interventions – the importance of emotion regulation in the elderly population’s health.
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