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Coccidia display a characteristic life cycle, where the parasites switch between asexual and sexual development, resulting in an environmental stage, the oocyst. The entero-pathogenic Cystoisospora suis, a coccidian parasite of swine and close relative to Toxoplasma gondii, undergoes development in one host-cycle. Despite the well-described intracellular development of Coccidia, the C. suis life cycle can progress in an in vitro, host cell-free system after initial intracellular development of merozoites. A novel host cell-free cultivation method was developed by transferring purified merozoites from cell culture supernatant (dpi 6) to culture medium and incubating them for 5 days to induce their progression to sexually differentiated stages. The development of sexual stages in the absence of host cells was verified by morphological studies, flow cytometry and the transcription analysis of three genes linked to sexual stages (HAP2, OWP and TyRP). The host cell-free culture permits the sexual development (and with this, the complete life cycle progression from sporozoites to oocysts) of C. suis in vitro and provides a new tool for detailed research on the development of C. suis and possibly other Coccidia. This will also be useful for the evaluation of novel drug or vaccine targets in these parasites.
Accurate negation identification is one of the most important tasks in the context of sentiment analysis. In order to correctly interpret the sentiment value of a particular expression, we need to identify whether it is in the scope of negation. While much of the work on negation detection has focused on English, we have seen recent developments that provide accurate identification of negation in other languages. In this paper, we provide an overview of negation detection systems and describe an implementation of a Spanish system for negation cue detection and scope identification. We apply this system to the sentiment analysis task, confirming also for Spanish that improvements can be gained from accurate negation detection. The paper contributes an implementation of negation detection for sentiment analysis in Spanish and a detailed error analysis. This is the first work in Spanish in which a machine learning negation processing system is applied to the sentiment analysis task. Existing methods have used negation rules that have not been assessed, perhaps because the first Spanish corpus annotated with negation for sentiment analysis has only recently become available.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
This project studies the early Roman non-wheel-thrown Aquitania-Tarraconensis-type (AQTA) pottery from the Bay of Biscay region. The ‘ollae’-type AQTA ceramics display clear evidence of specialised production, consumption and interregional exchange by both terrestrial and maritime routes throughout the region.
This work presents a study of the chemical structure, morphology, electromagnetic absorption and electric conductivity of thin films. The electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole/surfactant (PPy/SDS) films doped with iodine is carried out by glow discharge plasma in aqueous solution, at different reaction times. The morphology shows agglomerations of particles dispersed in the surface. Infrared spectroscopic analysis shows absorption on the wavenumbers 2915,2362 and 2082 cm-1 corresponding to chemical groups C-H, C=O and R/N=C=S, respectively. The electromagnetic absorption had higher response sensitivity between 340 to 800 nm in the visible region, and the electric conductivity of samples oscillated between 5.0x10-6 and 2.0x10-5 S/cm. The thickness films significantly increased when doping with iodine, reaching values up to 50 μm.
The objective of this study is to design and implement an intervention program centered on preventing functional dependence.
A pre/post quasi-experimental (typical case) design study with a control group was conducted on a group of 75–90-year-old individuals with functional dependence (n = 59) at three nursing homes in Madrid (Spain). The intervention program consists of two types of activities developed simultaneously. Some focused on emotional well-being (nine 90-minute sessions, once per week), whereas others focused on improving participants’ physical condition (two 30-minute sessions, twice per week). The simple randomized participants included 59 elderly individuals (Intervention Group = 30, Control Group = 29) (mean age 86.80) [SD, 5. 19].
Fifty-nine participants were analyzed. The results indicate that the program is effective in improving mood, lowering anxiety levels (d = 0.81), and increasing both self-esteem (d = 0.65) and the perception of self-efficacy (d = 1.04). There are improvements in systolic pressure and functional dependence levels are maintained. Linear simple regression (independent variable pre-Barthel) shows that the pre-intervention dependence level can predict self-esteem after the intervention.
We have demonstrated that the program is innovative with regard to bio-psychosocial care in elderly individuals, is based on actual practice, and is effective in increasing both self-esteem and self-efficacy. These variables positively affect functional capabilities and delay functional dependence.
Knowledge of symptom prevalence and adequate assessment of such symptoms at the end of life is important in clinical practice. We determined the frequency and severity of symptom distress and delirium using the Edmonton Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and evaluated the clinical utility of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) as scored by a caregiver as a screening tool for delirium.
We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from a previous randomized controlled trial on parenteral hydration at the end of life of patients admitted to home hospice. Only patients that had assessments within the last week of life were included. We collected the ESAS, MDAS, Nu-DESC, and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) results. The sensitivity and specificity of the Nu-DESC were then calculated.
Some 78 of 261 patients were included in our study, 62 (80%) of which had moderate-to-severe symptoms corresponding to an ESAS score >4. These symptoms include: 73 (94%) anorexia, 63 (81%) fatigue, 56 (73%) drowsiness, 58 (75%) decreased well-being, and 39 (51%) pain. Delirium was diagnosed in 34 (44%) of patients using the MDAS. The Nu-DESC was found to have a sensitivity of 35%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 58%, and an negative predictive value (NPV) of 61% when used by caregivers.
Significance of Results:
Hospice patients at the end of life have a high rate of symptom distress and delirium. The Nu-DESC is not a reliable tool for screening delirium when scoring is conducted by a caregiver. Our study illustrates the need for routine use of assessment tools to improve care.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
Thermal analysis techniques are routinely applied to characterize the thermal behavior of metal organic precursors used for oxide film preparation. Since the mass of films is very low, researchers do their thermal analyses on powders and consider that the results are representative of films. We will show here that, in general, this assumption is not true. Several examples involving precursors of YBa2Cu3O7-x (Ba and Y trifluoroacetates and Ba propionate) will serve to appreciate that films can behave very differently than powders due to their enhanced heat and mass transport paths. Ultimately, we will demonstrate that, in some cases, relying on powders thermal analysis may lead to erroneous conclusions.
Histone H1 in Leishmania presents relevant differences compared to higher eukaryote counterparts, such as the lack of a DNA-binding central globular domain. Despite that, it is apparently fully functional since its differential expression levels have been related to changes in chromatin condensation and infectivity, among other features. The localization and the aggregation state of L. braziliensis H1 has been determined by immunolocalization, mass spectrometry, cross-linking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Analysis of H1 sequences from the Leishmania Genome Database revealed that our protein is included in a very divergent group of histones H1 that is present only in L. braziliensis. An antibody raised against recombinant L. braziliensis H1 recognized specifically that protein by immunoblot in L. braziliensis extracts, but not in other Leishmania species, a consequence of the sequence divergences observed among Leishmania species. Mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro DNA-binding experiments have also proven that L. braziliensis H1 is monomeric in solution, but oligomerizes upon binding to DNA. Finally, despite the lack of a globular domain, L. braziliensis H1 is able to form complexes with DNA in vitro, with higher affinity for supercoiled compared to linear DNA.
Knowledge of the population dynamics of tropical trees has expanded considerably in the past 20 years. An important observation deriving from these investigations is the confirmation that population behaviour varies both in time and space. A tool recently developed to evaluate the potential for variation in vital rates, and therefore in population growth rate, is variance-standardized perturbation analysis (VSPA). In this paper we report the results of a 2-y demographic analysis of a population of the tropical tree Manilkara zapota in a subtropical rain forest in the Mexican state of Veracruz, in which variance-standardized perturbation analysis was applied and compared with the results of the traditional elasticity analyses. To build population projection matrices, we tagged and followed a sample of 91 juvenile and adult individuals, and 635 seedlings. We subdivided the sample in nine size classes (defined by tree height and dbh; as well as leaf size, in the case of seedlings) and estimated transition probabilities and fecundity for each class. The demography of M. zapota varied greatly from the first to the second year of study (in 1998–1999, λ = 0.987, while in 1999–2000, λ = 1.038) due to negligible seed production during the first year and a massive reproductive event during the second. The largest elasticity values for both years corresponded to persistence of large juveniles and adults. Although the fecundity entries showed very low elasticity values, the variance-standardized perturbation analysis revealed the importance of these matrix entries; transition to larger categories and retrogression to smaller ones of saplings and juveniles were also important demographic processes contributing to variation in λ according to the VSPA. Thus, although the results of elasticity analysis and VSPA were similar for the 1998–1999 matrix, they differed substantially for the 1999–2000 matrix. In the latter, the VSPA enhanced the importance of demographic processes that are intuitively relevant for the population studied. This points toward the necessity of further exploring the use of VSPA, since it offers several advantages over the traditional elasticity analysis: it concentrates on the impact on λ of vital rates that actually vary, and the interpretation of the results is more realistic and straightforward.
A group of three unlooted shaft tombs was discovered and excavated in the site of El Piñon, in Bolaños Canyon of northern Jalisco and southern Zacatecas. The details of the excavations are discussed here, highlighting chronology, the presence of local and trade goods, the osteological analysis, and the question of sequential versus single interment.
Living morphogenetic studies show that each definitive ventricle is constructed from different primitive cardiac segments, and each has its specific anatomical features. These ventricular segments are the atrioventricular junction; the primitive inlet segment, part of the primary heart tube, which initially provides the inlets of each ventricle; the primitive outlet segment, which gives rise to both ventricular outlets; and the apical trabeculated regions of the right and left ventricles which grow from the primary heart tube, respectively. In this review, we describe regional pathology based on the relationship of these primitive ventricular components. We propose that the abnormal morphogenesis of one of these segments gives origin to regional ventricular pathology. For example, abnormal embryogenesis of the atrioventricular canal produces malformations of the atrioventricular junctions, such as double inlet ventricle, absence of one atrioventricular connection, and straddling and overriding atrioventricular valves. Similarly, abnormal morphogenesis of the primitive outlet segment gives rise to malformations of the subarterial region of each ventricle, along with the valves guarding these vessels. The principal anatomical features of these malformations of the ventricular inlets and outlets are described, and their possible morphogenesis is discussed. Due to the fact that the apical trabeculated region of each ventricle arises from a separate primitive segment, each ventricle can be identified according to the pattern of its apical trabeculations. This feature is crucial in the elucidation of complex congenital pathology, such as discordant atrioventricular connections.
Las tumbas de tiro son bien conocidas en el registro arqueológico del Occidente de México. Empero, se sabía muy poco de estos entierros y los rituales mortuorios asociados porque la mayoría de estos monumentos funerarios han sido saqueados. En este artículo presentamos nuevos datos procedentes de tres tumbas de tiro selladas, fechadas en los primeros siglos d.C., las cuales fueron recientemente descubiertas y excavadas sistemáticamente en el norte de Jalisco. Los artefactos recuperados de las tumbas muestran afiliaciones estilísticas con materiales culturales provenientes de otras regiones de Jalisco y partes de Nayarit.
The reproductive cycle of the pedunculate barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes from two intertidal levels (mid and low) at Cabo de Sines, south-west coast of Portugal has been described. Pollicipes pollicipes larger than 12.5 mm (rostrocarinal distance, RC) are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Minimum size for maturity of the female gonad was 12.5 mm (RC) whilst sperm production is achieved at a smaller size (10 mm). The breeding season was from April to September. Reproductive activity was similar at both tidal levels and was significantly correlated with seawater temperature. Brooding activity was most pronounced in late spring and summer when seawater temperature ranged from 18 to 21°C. Throughout the year, sperm was stored in the seminal vesicles, although the testes regressed from October–December. The female gonad was resting in October–January and active during March–September. During resting, only a few empty ovarioles were observed. At the beginning and in the middle of the reproductive season (March to August), the ovary was completely disrupted after fertilization and ovary recovery occurred simultaneously with egg development. During the end of the reproductive season (September–October), synchrony was retarded as recovery of the ovary was slower than egg development. The pattern of functioning of the female gonad should allow production of several broods during the season.
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