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To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
A retrospective investigation was made to compare the occupational risk of tuberculosis in personnel assisting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis.
We retrospectively reviewed 6 years of hospital activity in 3 units where HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis are hospitalized and in 2 units where non-HIV-infected tuberculosis patients are hospitalized. The risk of occupational tuberculosis in healthcare workers who assisted HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis was investigated.
The risk of occupational tuberculosis in healthcare workers was studied by considering the numbers of potential source cases (hospitalized patients with tuberculosis) in the two conditions investigated (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). Both potential source cases and cases of tuberculosis in healthcare workers had to be microbiologically proven in order to be considered..
Seven cases of tuberculosis occurred in persons who cared for 85 HIV-infected subjects with tuberculosis, while only 2 cases occurred in staff members who took care of 1,079 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients over the same period (relative risk=44.4; 95% confidence interval = 8.5-438).
Tuberculosis seems no longer to be a neglectable risk in healthcare workers assisting patients with HIV infection. Further study is urgently needed to see whether such unexpectedly high dissemination of tuberculosis also is demonstrable in the community.
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