Objective: We investigated the epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in long-term care facility (LTCF) patients admitted to a tertiary-care center in Detroit. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted of LTCF residents who were hospitalized with CDI at the Detroit Medical Center between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2016. Case patients (LTCF residents admitted with CDI) were compared to 2 sets of inpatient controls. The first set of controls included inpatients presenting from the same LTCFs without CDI (control A). Second set included inpatients admitted from non-LTCF (home, community, hospital) who acquired CDI > 48 hours after admission or those who acquired CDI within 48 hours of admission but were exposed to an acute-care hospital within 4 weeks prior to admission (control B). Cases were matched (1:3 ratio) to the 2 sets of controls (control A and control B) based on year of admission. Matched multivariable analyses using conditional logistic regression were performed to identify independent predictors of CDI. Results: In total, 85 cases were matched to 2 sets of controls. For the first multivariate logistic regression model performed on cases and control A (n1 = 255), significant risk factors identified included tube feeding (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.43–9.02; P = .006) and albumin ≤2.5 g/dL (OR, 4.98; 95% CI, 2.02–12.31; P < .001). For the second multivariate logistic regression model performed on cases and control B (n2 = 255), significant risk factors identified included Charlson comorbidity index score (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.12–1.40; P < .001), tube feeding (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.81–7.25; P < .001), prior use of PPI (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.20–0.68; P = .001), prior use of H2 blockers (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.16–0.69; P = .003), and prior use of antibiotics (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.06–0.24; P < .001). Cases were more likely to have complicated CDI (OR, 7.02; P < .001) and recurrent CDI (OR, 2.63; P =.02) when compared to control B. Conclusions: Patients who acquired CDI at LTCFs experienced more severe CDI and were at greater risk for recurrent CDI than patients with other healthcare-associated CDI. For the regression model performed on cases and control A as well as that performed on cases and control B, tube feeding was the only variable that consistently predicted CDI among LTCF patients.
Funding: This study was supported by Pfizer Inc (Collegeville, PA).