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The introduction of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) into semiconductor device processing brought a significant need for wet chemistry research and development in this industry. With the transition from aluminum to copper for advanced interconnect metallization came a tremendous amount of electrochemical research and process development towards a production worthy copper CMP process capable of meeting the stringent specifications of dual damascene integration.In addition, the dual damascene integration scheme introduced copper deposition challenges that brought significant activity in developing another wet chemistry process, electroplating. These two sequential, chemical processes have been shown to have significant interaction that has created significant challenges in process integration.
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