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Japan DMAT and US DMAT have been conducting several tabletop exercises to prepare for major earthquake disasters in Japan. Japan is predicting overwhelming disasters on Japanese soil soon, which needs efficient and optimum use of resources in medical assistance, including additional support from the US. The Japanese government established a large-scale Earthquake/Tsunami Disaster Emergency Response protocol in 2020. However, this protocol does not include any standard operation procedure (SOP) to receive an international medical team. The purpose of this study is to establish the SOP of receiving medical assistance from US-DMAT based on the WHO International Emergency Team (EMT) initiative through tabletop exercises.
Collaborated with the Office of the Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response (ASPR) of the United States Health and Human Services, tabletop exercises assuming that a large-scale earthquake occurred during the hosting of the 2025 Osaka Expo was conducted utilizing an online meeting system.
A provisional SOP was composed. Even though Japan had several disaster medical assistance collaborations with US DMAT and is well-familiarized with the Classification and Minimum Standards for Emergency Medical Teams", many issues need to be prepared to accept US DMAT.
Numerous procedures need to be conducted to receive US DMAT assistance during a large-scale earthquake in Japan. With this SOP, receiving US medical team assistance will be conducted promptly, eventually saving many lives. This SOP can be modified for other international teams' acceptance in Japan. It could reference other countries seeking to have SOP for receiving international medical team assistance shortly.
Japan is a country with many disasters. Japan’s disaster medical system has improved significantly over the past 30 years by gaining experience in various disasters. Japan is implementing one of the unique disaster medical teams raised from experience and needs.
Introducing the Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) system and discussing how the domestic disaster medical team should be.
Referring to the actual response to domestic disasters and the development of disaster medical teams in Japan.
The National Emergency Medical Teams (National-EMT), Japan DMAT, was established in 2005. Currently, DMAT is 1,754 teams and over 15,862 members were registered. The team usually consists of five to six personnel, including two doctors, two nurses, and two logisticians. Each team carries standardized equipment. Japan DMAT will not set up a field hospital in the disaster area. Japan DMAT will bring a team to the Disaster Base Hospitals (DBHs) and start supporting the affected hospital operation first. Then, if there are other affected patients within DBH’s medical jurisdiction, then the team will mobile and support each hospital and clinic for further medical assistance.
Having National-EMT in your own country is necessary for disaster-prone countries. Still, it is also required to consider what type of EMT needs to be established, referring already existing emergency medical system of your country.
Current evidence suggests that the aetiology of congenital gastrointestinal (GI) tract atresia is multifactorial, and not based solely on genetic factors. However, there are no established modifiable risk factors for congenital GI tract atresia. We used data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study launched in 2011, and examined whether fish consumption in early pregnancy was associated with congenital GI tract atresia. We analysed data of 89 495 women (mean age at delivery=31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Based on the results of the FFQ, we estimated the daily intake of fish and n-3 PUFA consumption in early pregnancy. We defined a composite outcome (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunoileal atresia and/or anorectal malformation) as congenital GI tract atresia. In this population, median fish intake was 31·9 g/d, and seventy-four cases of congenital GI tract atresia were identified. Fish consumption in early pregnancy was inversely associated with the composite outcome (multivariable-adjusted OR for the high v. low consumption category=0·5, 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0). For all the specific types of atresia, decreased OR were observed in the high consumption category, although not statistically significant. Reduced atresia occurrence was observed even beyond the US Food and Drug Administration’s recommended consumption of no more than 340 g/week. Also, n-3 PUFA-rich fish and n-3 PUFA consumptions tended to be inversely associated with atresia. Fish consumption in early pregnancy may be a preventive factor for congenital GI tract atresia.
The current status of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 [BST] capacitor technology using a liquid source chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is reviewed, focusing on the CVD techniques and the physical, electrical and process-integration-related properties of Ru/BST/Ru capacitors. The use of a new titanium metalorganic (MO) source, titanium bis(tert-butoxy) bis(dipivaloylmethanato) [Ti(tertBuO)2 (DPM)2] dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) turned out to enable highly conformal deposition of BST films with a coverage ratio of ∼ 70 % for a trench with an aspect ratio of ∼ 5. Electrical properties of a 24-nm-thick BST film, deposited on a Pt substrate at a low substrate temperature of 480 °C, were also confirmed to be equivalent SiO2 thickness (teq) of ∼ 0.5 nm and leakage current of ∼ 1 ×10-7 A/cm2 at 1 V. As for the Ru/BST/Ru capacitors, no deteriorations of Ru electrode and BST/Ru interface were observed after 750 °C post-annealing experiment, showing good thermal stability of Ru as a practical electrode material. Although current leak through Ru/BST/Ru capacitors slightly increased after the H2 annealing, such degradation in the leakage properties was restored by post-annealing in N2 ambience. Integrated Ru/BST/Ru capacitors with a 30-nm-thick CVD-BST film were fabricated by 0.5 μm ULSI technology, and low leakage current was confirmed for the stacked capacitors. Regarding the reproducibility of BST deposition by the liquid source CVD method, the deviation ratio of ∼ ± 2.3 % in film thickness was obtained for ∼ 100 successive depositions, thickness uniformity across the wafers was ∼ ± 1.1 %. The above results imply the potential applicability of BST capacitor technology using a liquid source CVD method for Gbit-scale DRAMs.
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