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This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary starch structure on muscle protein synthesis and gastrointestinal amino acid (AA) transport and metabolism of goats. Twenty-seven Xiangdong black female goats (average body weight = 9.00 ± 1.12 kg) were randomly assigned to three treatments, i.e., fed a T1 (normal corn 100%, high amylose corn 0%), T2 (normal corn 50%, high amylose corn 50%) and T3 (normal corn 0%, high amylose corn 100%) diet for 35 days, respectively. All amino acids in the ileal mucosa were decreased linearly as amylose/amylopectin increased in diets (P<0.05). The plasma valine (linear, P=0.03), leucine (linear, P=0.04), and total amino acids content (linear, P=0.03) increased linearly with the increase in the ratio of amylose in the diet. The relative mRNA levels of SLC38A1 (linear, P=0.01), SLC3A2 (linear, P=0.02), and SLC38A9 (linear, P=0.02) in the ileum increased linearly with the increase in the ratio of amylose in the diet. With the increase in the ratio of amylose/amylopectin in the diet, the mRNA levels of ACADSB (linear, P=0.04), BCAT1 (linear, P=0.02), and BCKDHB (linear, P=0.01) in the ileum decreased linearly. Our results revealed that the protein abundances of p-mTOR (P<0.001), p-4EBP1 (P<0.001), and p-S6K1 (P<0.001) of T2 and T3 were significantly higher than that of T1. In general, a diet with a high amylose ratio could reduce the consumption of amino acids in the intestine, allowing more amino acids to enter the blood to maintain higher muscle protein synthesis through the mTOR pathway.
Three-dimensional porous materials with the hydrophobic/oleophilic surface have attracted significant interest in the fields of oil/water separation. In this paper, superhydrophobic magnetic polyurethane sponge was fabricated by the self-polymerization of dopamine to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then soaking in cheap stearic acid aqueous solution. The obtained sponge has the superhydrophobic property and good magnetic property. The surface structure, composition, and properties of the modified sponges were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectrum, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-prepared superhydrophobic magnetic sponge was able to collect a wide range of oils and organic solvents from oil–water mixture with an absorption capacity up to 16–60 times of its own weight. Under an external magnetic field, it can be guided to a designated area. In addition, combined with the vacuum system, continuous oil separation can be carried out, which is of great significance for removing a good deal of dirty oil on the water surface. Furthermore, the WCA of sponge remains above 141°, and the oil absorption is basically unchanged through repeated cyclic experiments.
Aiming at planning the welding path of complex ship components, a welding path planning optimization model was constructed with the shortest welding path and using the target and the welding process and welding starting and ending points as constraints. Based on the model, an improved ant colony algorithm with dynamic adaptive parameters was proposed to complete the path planning work. Simulation results showed that, compared with other classical optimization algorithms, the proposed algorithm improved optimization speed while ensuring optimization effect and achieving better results in path planning of complex ship components.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
A series of double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) catalysts with mesoporous morphology was prepared by a sol–gel method and further applied into photothermal synergistic degradation of gaseous toluene. Transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller characterizations confirmed that double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had obvious mesoporous structure, which can provide a larger specific surface area and further enhancing the reactivity of catalyst. UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization illustrated that LaSmMnNiO6 possessed higher adsorption oxygen content and light absorption capacity, which contribute to the occurrence of catalytic oxidation in the Mars–van Krevelen redox cycle mechanism. A group of active tests showed that the double-perovskite LaSmMnNiO6 catalyst had a lower reaction initiation temperature (starting reaction at 75 °C) and a lower activity temperature of optimal reaction (more than 90% at 255 °C). Moreover, the research on reaction kinetics of the catalyst demonstrated that LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had lower activation energy and thus exhibited better catalytic activity. The results of the study indicate that the double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) has broad application prospects in the field of volatile organic pollutant degradation.
A series of metal oxides (MnFeOx, MnCrOx, MnTiOx, and MnFeTiOx) supported on attapulgite (ATP) were synthesized by coprecipitation for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. Then, they were subjected to appropriate characterizations for their properties (XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, etc.). The catalytic activity of MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst was over 95% NOx conversion within a wide temperature window between of 175 and 300 °C, and 88% N2 selectivity. Moreover, MnFeTiOx/ATP presented excellent potassium resistance relative to the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst, and its denitration performance was significantly improved. The NOx conversion rate could be restored to nearly 90% at 210 °C after removing potassium via washing of K–MnFeTiOx/ATP. In addition, the MnFeTiOx/ATP showed better SO2 resistance and stability than the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst. Therefore, the MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst has been proved to have broad prospects in NH3-SCR.
A new helminthomorph millipede, Sinosoma luopingense new genus new species, from the Triassic Luoping biota of China, has 39 body segments, metazonites with lateral swellings that bear a pair of posterolateral pits (?insertion pits for spine bases), and sternites that are unfused to the pleurotergites. This millipede shares a number of characters with nematophoran diplopods, but lacks the prominent dorsal suture characteristic of that order. Other “millipede” material from the biota is more problematic. Millipedes are a rare part of the Luoping biota, which is composed mainly of marine and near-shore organisms. Occurrences of fossil millipedes are exceedingly rare in Triassic rocks worldwide, comprising specimens from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and consisting of juliform millipedes and millipedes that are either nematophorans or forms very similar to nematophorans.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
Excavation of the Han Dynasty chambered tomb at Laoguanshan in Chengdu, south-west China, has provided the earliest known evidence of pattern loom technology. Four model looms, along with accompanying artefacts and figurines relating to the weaving process, give insight into the technique of jin silk production. The discovery is hugely significant as it provides the first direct evidence of pattern-weave textile production in ancient China. Jin silk, made using this method, was both valuable and widely distributed, and the design of the machine influenced the invention of later looms and the spread of technology throughout Eurasia and Europe, representing great technological accomplishment for the second century BC.
Spatial indexing technology is widely used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial databases. As a data retrieval technology, spatial indexing is becoming increasingly important in the big-data age. The purpose of this study is to propose a unified indexing strategy for the mixed data of a future marine GIS. First, data organisation of the system is described. Second, the display condition of each type of data is introduced. These conditions are the basis for the construction of a unified indexing structure. Third, a unified indexing structure for mixed data is presented. The construction process and the search method of the indexing structure are described. Finally, we implement the indexing strategy in our system “Automotive Intelligent Chart Three-dimensional Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems” (AIC 3D ECDIS). Our strategy can provide fast and integrated data retrieval. The spatial indexing strategy we propose breaks through the limitation of data types in our system. It can also be applied in other GIS systems. With the advent of the big-data age, mixed data indexing will become more and more important.
Tiny, pelagic arthropods from the Anisian Luoping Biota exposed in two quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China, represent the numerically most abundant organisms in the assemblage. They form the basis for definition of two, and possibly three, species referred to the order Lophogastrida, family Eucopiidae. Yunnanocopia grandis new genus new species and Y. longicauda n. gen. new species represent the oldest occurrence of mysidaceans in the fossil record. Their anatomy allies them with the Ladinian species Schimperella acanthocercus Taylor, Schram, and Shen, 2001, from Guizhou Province, China, which previously was thought to be the oldest lophogastrid, and with extant species of Eucopiidae. Their appearance in the Anisian represents one additional element of the early faunal radiation within the Luoping Biota following the end-Permian extinction event. Presence of well-preserved oostegites, along with other morphological features, documents a conservative bauplan expressed in Eucopiidae.
A large assemblage of small specimens of Tridactylastacus sinensis Feldmann, Schweitzer, and Zhang in Feldmann et al., 2012, from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Luoping Biota, Yunnan Province, China, permitted cladistic analysis confirming their placement within Litogastridae in the superfamily Glypheoidea. Orientation of 86 specimens closely spaced on a single slab from one bedding surface revealed a preferred orientation suggestive of mild current activity. The specimens were interpreted to have been victims of a mass kill, possibly an algal bloom, within the water column.
It is known that large time-stepping method are useful for simulating phase field models. In this work, an adaptive time-stepping strategy is proposed based on numerical energy stability and equi-distribution principle. The main idea is to use the energy variation as an indicator to update the time step, so that the resulting algorithm is free of user-defined parameters, which is different from several existing approaches. Some numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithms.
The distribution of all recognized biotic elements was mapped on five extensive surfaces of the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation exposed in quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China. A 0.5 m2 grid was overlain on the surfaces, and all recognizable fossils were located by placing them in one of nine quadrants within the grid. A total of 240 m2 were mapped, and each specimen observed was recorded as one of 15 categories, subsequently grouped as pelagic, benthic, and other (bone, trace fossils, algae). The pelagic component, fish, thylacocephalans, and mysidaceans, dominated all layers. The benthic component was sparse on all surfaces; epifaunal, vagrant organisms were the dominant forms, suggesting that the substrate was unsuitable for infaunal and sessile epifaunal organisms. Shrimp and bivalves dominated the benthic organisms. Two of the surfaces were overwhelmingly dominated by mysidaceans, and one was dominated by thylacocephalans, suggesting that their remains documented periodic mass kills of swarming, pelagic organisms. Scanning electron microscope analysis of the bedding surfaces revealed nothing remarkable about the sediment, suggesting that the cause of death of the organisms was likely due to an event within the water column, possibly an algae bloom, not recorded in the sediment record.
In current transparent Si based photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication, green or infrared laser is the most common used band frequency to wipe off the silicon and back contact layer in perpendicular direction of cells. However, this method would result in more power loss than calculation value due to the side effects during the process such as constructional damage of module and shunt effect. A new method is presented here which focus on wiping off more silicon layer by employing green pulsed laser(532 nm wavelength) along the parallel direction of Pattern2, and it shows higher efficiency and more attractive appearance.
Thermo-camera is employed here to analyze kinds of quality abnormal and improve production process during manufacture procedure of silicon-based thin-film solar modules. It shows that thermo-camera device can help engineers to solve problem of production line quickly and accurately, and save the manpower and financial resources at the same time.
Two new genera, Anisaeger and Distaeger, and three new species, Anisaeger brevirostrus, A. spiniferus, and Distaeger prodigiosus, extend the range of the Aegeridae (Dendrobranchiata, Penaeoidea) into the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of China. Seven decapod crustacean species are now known from the Luoping biota of southern China. Morphological features of shrimp that are present but rarely mentioned in the neontological literature are recognized as potentially useful in classifying fossil material, including a diaeresis on the exopod of the uropods and multiarticulate flagellae on pleopods. Unusual taphonomic features of the shrimp include fractured cuticle, preservation in lateral, dorsal, and ventral position, and twisted cephalothoraxes.
A new penaeoid shrimp collected from the Middle Triassic Member II of the Guanling Formation in the vicinity of the city of Luxi, Yunnan, southwest China, is a new species, Aeger luxii n. sp. The new species possesses prominent spinose third maxillipeds, which is one of the typical characteristics of Aeger. The new species differs from the type species, Aeger tipularius from the Jurassic Solnhofen Plattenkalk, in having a long, smooth rostrum with no subrostral spines. The new taxon increases the diversity of Chinese decapods, and further expands our knowledge of the phylogeny and evolution of the Mesozoic decapods. The find is the first complete specimen of Aeger in the Middle Triassic, and reveals a close biogeographic connection of the marine ecosystem between Eastern and Western Tethys.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.