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The relationship of a diet low in fiber with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) attributable to a diet low in fiber globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional, and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4.07 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): [2.08, 6.34]) to 4.60 (95% UI: [2.59, 6.90]), and in Central Sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7.46 (95% UI: [3.64, 11.90]) to 9.34 (95% UI: [4.69, 15.25]). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardized YLDs rates attributable to a diet low in fiber in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increase in Central Asia, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fiber in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardized YLDs rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fiber.
Lithospheric thinning occurred in the North China Craton (NCC) that resulted in extensive Mesozoic magmatism, which has provided the opportunity to explore the mechanism of the destruction of the NCC. In this study, new zircon U–Pb ages, geochemical and Lu–Hf isotopic data are presented for Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks in the Liaodong Peninsula, with the aim of establishing their origin as well as the thinning mechanism of the NCC. The zircon U–Pb data show that crystallization occurred during 127–120 Ma (i.e. Early Cretaceous). These rocks are characterized by high Sr (294–711 ppm) content and Sr/Y ratio (38.5–108), low Yb (0.54–1.24 ppm) and Y (4.9–16.4 ppm) contents, and with no obvious Eu anomalies, implying that they are adakitic rocks. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (e.g. Ba, K, Pb and Sr) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g. Nb, Ta, P and Ti). These adakitic rocks have negative zircon ϵHf(t) contents (−28.9 to −15.0) with two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 3004–2131 Ma. Based on the geochemical features, such as low TiO2 and MgO contents, and high La/Yb and K2O/Na2O ratios, these adakites originated from the partial melting of thickened eclogitic lower crust. They were in an extensional setting associated with the slab rollback of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean. In combination with previous studies, as a result of the rapid retracting of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean during 130–120 Ma, the asthenosphere upwelled and modified the thickened lithospheric mantle, which lost its stability, resulting in the lithospheric delamination and thinning of the NCC.
To address the shortcomings of existing methods for rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing on a ship at sea, a dual-channel LIDAR searching, positioning, tracking and landing system (DCLSPTLS) is proposed in this paper, which utilises the multi-pulse laser echoes accumulation method and the physical phenomenon that the laser reflectivity of the ship deck in the near-infrared band is four orders of magnitude higher than that of the sea surface. The DCLSPTLS searching and positioning model, tracking model and landing model are established, respectively. The searching and positioning model can provide estimates of the azimuth angle, the distance of the ship relative to the rotorcraft and the ship's course. With the above parameters as inputs, the total tracking time and the direction of the rotorcraft tracking speed can be obtained by using the tracking model. The landing model can calculate the pitch and the roll angles of the ship's deck relative to the rotorcraft by using the least squares method and the laser irradiation coordinates. The simulation shows that the DCLSPTLS can realise the functions of rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing by using the above parameters. To verify the effectiveness of the DCLSPTLS, a functional test is performed using a rotorcraft and a model ship on a lake. The test results are consistent with the results of the simulation.
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin D3 supplementation on the growth performance, tissue Ca and P concentrations, antioxidant capacity, immune response and lipid metabolism in Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. A total of 720 shrimp (initial weight 0·50 ± 0·01 g) were randomly distributed into six treatments, each of which had three duplicates of forty shrimp per duplicate. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded vitamin D3 (0·18, 0·23, 0·27, 0·48, 0·57 and 0·98 mg/kg of vitamin D3, measured) supplementation levels. The results revealed that L. vannamei fed diet containing 0·48 mg/kg of vitamin D3 achieved the best growth performance. Compared with the control group, supplementing 0·48 mg/kg of vitamin D3 significantly increased (P < 0·05) the activities of catalase, total antioxidative capacity, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase in serum and hepatopancreas. Expression levels of antioxidant and immune-related genes were synchronously increased (P < 0·05). Carapace P and Ca concentrations were increased (P < 0·05) with the increased vitamin D3 supplementation levels. Further analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes expression showed that shrimp fed 0·48 mg of vitamin D3 per kg diet showed the highest value in the expression of lipid synthesis-related genes, while shrimp fed 0·98 mg of vitamin D3 per kg diet showed the highest value in the expression of lipolysis-related genes. In conclusion, the results of present study indicated that dietary supplementation of 0·48 mg/kg of vitamin D3 could increase Ca and P concentrations, improve antioxidant capacity and immune response, and influence lipid metabolism in L. vannamei.
The Jueluotage area, which is located in the southern branch of the Eastern Tianshan and northeast of the Tarim Basin, represents a vital locality for investigating intracontinental reactivation induced by the tectonic events at the Eurasian plate margin. This study applies zircon and apatite (U–Th)/He and apatite fission-track thermochronology to the Jueluotage area in the Eastern Tianshan. Our data and thermal history modelling show that the Jueluotage area experienced Triassic–Early Jurassic (˜240–180 Ma) cooling, reflecting the closure of the North Tianshan Ocean and subsequent far-field effects of collision/accretion of the Qiangtang Block and Kunlun terrane. Following this period of fast cooling, a differential exhumation process occurred between the various tectonic belts in the Jueluotage area. The Aqishan–Yamansu belt was exposed at the surface during the Triassic–Early Jurassic cooling phase and experienced subsequent burial, which continued until Early Cretaceous time when a pulse of exhumation occurred. However, the major fault zones (Kanggurtag ductile shear zone and Aqikkuduk Fault) and Central Tianshan arc have remained tectonically stable since Early Jurassic time. No Cenozoic rapid cooling was recorded by the low-temperature thermochronology results in this study, indicating that much of the Jueluotage area was exhumed to the upper crust in the late Mesozoic period.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
There have been calls for the expansion of protected areas (PAs) to tackle the ongoing biodiversity loss, yet it is unclear where future PAs might help to protect biodiversity in degraded landscapes under the conservation planning principles of complementarity, connectivity and cost-effectiveness. Our conservation goal is to increase the PA network coverage to up to 30% of the landscape of the Zhangjiang River Basin for target species in the karst area of southwest China, a global biodiversity hotspot. Zonation 4GUI was used to evaluate the adequacy of current PAs and to strategically expand PAs while maximizing the coverage of target species and considering ecological integrity and socioeconomic activities. The results show that significant habitat degradation has occurred across 77.9% of the basin. The current PAs cover 6.3% of the site and represent 8.7% of the total distribution of key species. With regards to the threshold of protection of 30% of the area, protecting an additional 27.2% of the site under an ecological integrity prioritization scenario and a scenario of the socioeconomic costs involved in iteration would cover 93.5% and 80.4% of the ranges of the key species, respectively. Our results can be used to inform the upcoming actions associated with karst area conservation-related policies.
Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness using generalised multivariate logistic regression. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5 and 37.9 °C and temperature above 38 °C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. External validation datasets reported similar result. Our study provides a tool to discern COVID-19 patients from controls using symptoms and day from illness onset with good predictive performance. It could be considered as a framework to complement laboratory testing in order to differentiate COVID-19 from other patients presenting with acute symptoms in outpatient care.
The objective of this study was to investigate how different obesity measures link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on follow-up survey data at the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which was conducted in four areas of China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan) in 2013. The survey collected detailed questionnaire information and conducted physical examinations, fasting blood sampling and untargeted metabolomic measurements among 439 adult twins. Linear regression models and bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the relation of obesity measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with serum metabolite levels and related pathways. A co-twin control study was additionally conducted among 15 obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs (intrapair BMI difference >3 kg/m2) to examine any differences in metabolites controlling for genetic factors. Eleven metabolites were associated with BMI, WC and WHR after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. Pathway analysis identified pathways such as phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis that were associated with obesity. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with obesity. Obesity-discordant twin analysis suggests that these associations are independent of genetic liability.
Additive manufacturing (AM) comprises a group of transformative technologies that are likely to revolutionize manufacturing. In particular, laser-based metal AM techniques can not only fabricate parts with extreme complexity, but also provide innovative means for designing and processing new metallic systems. However, there are still several technical barriers that constrain metal AM. Overcoming these barriers requires a better understanding of the physics underlying the complex and dynamic laser–metal interaction at the heart of many AM processes. This article briefly describes the state of the art of in situ/operando synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction for studying metal AM, mostly the laser powder-bed fusion process. It highlights the immediate impact of operando synchrotron studies on the advancement of AM technologies, and presents future research challenges and opportunities.
Acer yangbiense Y.S. Chen & Q.E. Yang (Aceraceae) is a threatened tree species endemic to China, formerly presumed to have declined to only five extant individuals, restricted to Yangbi County, Yunnan Province. Our surveys in 2016, however, located 577 individuals in 12 localities, but only three localities (with a total of 62 individuals) are protected. Nine localities are on private forest land. The population's size structure is an inverse J-curve, but there is a scarcity of trees of the smallest size class and of seedlings. Our surveys also showed that the habitat of A. yangbiense is degraded as a result of the negative effects of agriculture, logging and wood harvesting. Assessment with the IUCN Red List categories and criteria indicates that A. yangbiense should be recategorized from Critically Endangered to Endangered.
Episodic memory starts to decline very early in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subtle impairments in memory binding may be detected in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the memory binding test (MBT).
One hundred and sixty-four subjects (26 individuals with AD, 67 individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI), 30 individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and 41 cognitively normal elderly individuals (NC)) participated in the study. Twenty-two subjects repeated the assessment of the MBT within 6 weeks (± 2 weeks). Pearson correlation was used to calculate the convergent validity. The test––retest reliability was determined by the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Discriminative validity was calculated to evaluate the receiver–operating characteristic curves. The optimal index was chosen by comparing the area under the curve for specificity and sensitivity ≥ 0.80. The optimal cutoff score of the index was chosen to maximize the sum of sensitivity and specificity.
The absolute value of the convergent validity of the direct indexes of MBT ranged from 0.443 to 0.684. The ICC for each of direct indexes was 0.887–0.958. Total delayed paired recall (TDPR) was the optimal index for discriminating aMCI from NC. The cutoff score for TDPR was ≤25 to distinguish aMCI from NC (sensitivity = 0.896, specificity = 0.707).
The Chinese version of MBT is a valid and reliable instrument to detect MCI.
Magnolia ovoidea is a narrowly endemic, Critically Endangered tree with a fragmented distribution in south-west Yunnan, China. We examined the size structure of this species, documented threats and assessed its extinction risk. We found the species in six locations, all in unprotected areas, in Maguan County. The largest subpopulations are in Donggua Lin and Youfang Po, with 17 and 50 living individuals, respectively. The distribution of the diameter at breast height of the M. ovoidea population has an inverse J-shape, indicating a stable size structure. However, the distribution of the height of seedlings is L-shaped, suggesting inhibited regeneration. The natural vegetation is severely fragmented in all six locations, surrounded by roads, farmlands, and Alnus nepalensis or Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations. We recommend that M. ovoidea should be categorized on the IUCN Red List as Critically Endangered based on criteria B2ab(iii) + C2a(i).
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) is globally distributed in late Cambrian sedimentary records but controversially heterogeneous in its magnitudes. Here we use multiple geochemical proxies to investigate the late Cambrian carbonates from the Tangwangzhai section in North China, which were deposited in a shallow coastal environment with three depositional sequences (S1–S3). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). The REE + Y and trace element records are consistent with the depositional condition and indicate that terrigenous influence was more significant in the TST than HST. δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS are low in the TST relative to HST, consistent with the scenario that terrigenous inputs were profoundly aggressive to seawater by introducing 13C-depleted and 34S-depleted materials. Within the TST of S2, the SPICE excursion shows a scaled-down δ13Ccarb positive shift (∼1.7 ‰) relative to its general records (∼4–6 ‰); the corresponding δ34SCAS show no positive excursion. This ‘atypical’ SPICE record is attributed to enhanced 13C-depleted and 34S-depleted terrigenous influence during the TST, which would reduce the amplitude of δ13Ccarb excursion, and even obscure δ34SCAS excursion. Meanwhile the subaerial unconformity at the base of TST would also cause a partially missing and a ‘snapshot’ preservation. Our study confirms significant local influence to the SPICE records, and further supports the heterogeneity and low sulphate concentrations of the late Cambrian seawater, because of which the SPICE records may be vulnerable to specific depositional conditions (e.g. sea-level, terrigenous input).