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Many schools have readjusted their teaching management strategies in order to implement the principle of “Sanquan education”, that is, whole-process education and all-round education. The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of Sanquan teaching concept on the identification of students with functional cognitive impairment.
Subjects and Methods
Patients with cognitive impairment in a school were selected as research objects and randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group. The control group received the traditional teaching management mode, while the experimental group implemented the new teaching management mode that fully implemented the three-in-one education policy. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale was used for assessment and SPSS22.0 was used for statistical analysis.
After 6 months of experiment, the control group’s cognitive rating scale score changed from 11 to 13 points, while the experimental group’s cognitive rating scale score changed from 12 to 26 points. In the experimental group, the symptoms of patients with functional cognitive impairment were significantly alleviated (P<0.05). The experimental results show that the introduction of the concept of Sanquan education into teaching management has a significant impact on students’ recognition of functional cognitive impairment.
The introduction of the “ Sanquan education” policy in school teaching management can have a positive impact on the identification of students with functional cognitive impairment, reduce the symptoms of patients, and provide a potential therapeutic method with research significance. The results of this study provide a reference for school management and treatment of mental illness.
Learning phobia is a special phobia and mental disorder, which is a long-term behavior caused by psychological emotions such as anxiety, depression, etc. The current education model is mainly biased towards the test, paying too much attention to the test results, but ignoring the learning process in the classroom. This also causes the classroom to be too boring, which seriously affects the students’ interest in learning. Therefore, the key to improving students’ fear of learning lies in the reform of teaching mode.
Subjects and Methods
Educational psychology is a course of both theory and application, which helps to relieve students’ academic pressure and improve their overall quality. Therefore, based on educational psychology, this study makes an in-depth analysis of the influence of the reformed teaching mode on students’ learning phobia. Fifty students with learning phobia were randomly selected from a school. They were divided into general teaching group and teaching reform group, with 25 people in each group. SPSS 23.0 software was used to analyze the changes of students’ learning phobia.
Before the experiment, the baseline data of all students had no statistical significance (P>0.05). After intervention, the learning phobia of teaching reform group was significantly improved compared with that of general teaching group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).
The use of appropriate teaching mode can naturally improve students’ interest in learning, but also be more conducive to students’ physical and mental health growth.
Aging plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of the impacts of genetic and environmental factors on blood pressure and serum lipids. However, to our knowledge, how the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the correlation between blood pressure and serum lipids changes with age remains to be determined. In this study, data from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR) were used. Resting blood pressure, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured in 2378 participants (1189 twin pairs). Univariate and bivariate structural equation models examined the genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and serum lipids among three age groups. All phenotypes showed moderate to high heritability (0.37–0.59) and moderate unique environmental variance (0.30–0.44). The heritability of all phenotypes showed a decreasing trend with age. Among all phenotypes, SBP and DBP showed a significant monotonic decreasing trend. For phenotype-phenotype pairs, the phenotypic correlation (Rph) of each pair ranged from −0.04 to 0.23, and the additive genetic correlation (Ra) ranged from 0.00 to 0.36. For TC&SBP, TC&DBP, TG&SBP and TGs&DBP, both the Rph and Ra declined with age, and the Ra difference between the young group and the older adult group is statistically significant (p < .05). The unique environmental correlation (Re) of each pair did not follow any pattern with age and remained relatively stable with age. In summary, we observed that the heritability of blood pressure was affected by age. Moreover, blood pressure and serum lipids shared common genetic backgrounds, and age had an impact on the phenotypic correlation and genetic correlations.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is clinically documented to co-occur with multiple gastrointestinal disorders (GID), but the potential causal relationship between them remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the potential causal relationship of MDD with 4 GID [gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)] using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design.
We obtained genome-wide association data for MDD from a meta-analysis (N = 480 359), and for GID from the UK Biobank (N ranges: 332 601–486 601) and FinnGen (N ranges: 187 028–218 792) among individuals of European ancestry. Our primary method was inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR, with a series of sensitivity analyses to test the hypothesis of MR. Individual study estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis.
Meta-analyses IVW MR found evidence that genetically predicted MDD may increase the risk of GERD, IBS, PUD and NAFLD. Additionally, reverse MR found evidence of genetically predicted GERD or IBS may increase the risk of MDD.
Genetically predicted MDD may increase the risk of GERD, IBS, PUD and NAFLD. Genetically predicted GERD or IBS may increase the risk of MDD. The findings may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the co-morbidity of MDD and GID. Focusing on GID symptoms in patients with MDD and emotional problems in patients with GID is important for the clinical management.
The concentration of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and its carbon isotopic composition (δ13CPOC) were analysed in this study with the aim of exploring the sources and factors influencing levels of POC in the surface water around the Antarctic Peninsula. The scanning electron microscopy results suggest that diatom particles formed the main component of suspended particulate matter, indicating that POC was mainly from in situ primary production. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a and POC in sea water mainly occurred in nearshore and sea-ice edge regions, which might be controlled by nutrient and reactive iron inputs stemming from sea-ice melting. The δ13CPOC in the study area is significantly lower than that in low-latitude waters, with a range of -31.8‰ to -22.8‰ (mean -28.9‰), which was controlled by the high CO2 concentration in the Southern Ocean and might be influenced by phytoplankton growth rates and assemblages. This study helps us to understand material cycling in the Antarctic region under the conditions of global climate change.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal female reproductive system tumour. Despite the great advances in surgery and systemic chemotherapy over the past two decades, almost all patients in stages III and IV relapse and develop resistance to chemotherapy after first-line treatment. Ovarian cancer has an extraordinarily complex immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment in which immune checkpoints negatively regulate T cells activation and weaken antitumour immune responses by delivering immunosuppressive signals. Therefore, inhibition of immune checkpoints can break down the state of immunosuppression. Indeed, Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised the therapeutic landscape of many solid tumours. However, ICIs have yielded modest benefits in ovarian cancer. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic basis of the immune checkpoints is needed to improve the efficacy of ICIs in ovarian cancer. In this review, we systematically introduce the mechanisms and expression of immune checkpoints in ovarian cancer. Moreover, this review summarises recent updates regarding ICI monotherapy or combined with other small-molecule-targeted agents in ovarian cancer.
It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms and biological pathways underlying the relationship between obesity and serum lipid levels. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed to calculate heritability for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the genetic connections between BMI and the four classes of lipids using 1197 pairs of twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genomewide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genetic variants associated with BMI and lipids using the records of 457 individuals, and the results were further validated in 289 individuals. The genetic background affecting BMI may differ by gender, and the heritability of males and females was 71% (95% CI [.66, .75]) and 39% (95% CI [.15, .71]) respectively. BMI was positively correlated with TC, TG and LDL-C in phenotypic and genetic correlation, while negatively correlated with HDL-C. There were gender differences in the correlation between BMI and lipids. Bivariate GWAS analysis and validation stage found 7 genes (LOC105378740, LINC02506, CSMD1, MELK, FAM81A, ERAL1 and MIR144) that were possibly related to BMI and lipid levels. The significant biological pathways were the regulation of cholesterol reverse transport and the regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle clearance (p < .001). BMI and blood lipid levels were affected by genetic factors, and they were genetically correlated. There might be gender differences in their genetic correlation. Bivariate GWAS analysis found MIR144 gene and its related biological pathways may influence obesity and lipid levels.
The northern Alxa region is located in the central segment of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Many controversies and deficiencies still exist regarding the magma source characteristics, petrogenesis and tectonic regimes during the late Palaeozoic – early Mesozoic period within this region. This study presents whole-rock compositions and zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for three early Mesozoic I- and A-type granitic plutons occurring in the northern Alxa region. The Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids yielded zircon 206Pb–238U ages of 245 ± 5 Ma and 245 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The variable positive zircon ϵHf(t) values between +1.8 and +11.8, with young TDM ages of 425–837 Ma, indicate that these I-type granitoids were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials. The Wulantaolegai pluton has a zircon 206Pb–238U age of 237 ± 2 Ma and is classified as having high-K calc-alkaline A-type affinity. Furthermore, the positive zircon ϵHf(t) values of the Wulantaolegai granite range from +3.3 to +8.7 with young TDM ages of 545–778 Ma, suggesting the involvement of a juvenile crustal source as well. Furthermore, the major-element compositions of the Chahanhada and Wulantaolegai granites suggest the input of metasedimentary components. Geochemically, the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids show an arc affinity, while the Wulantaolegai granite exhibits a post-collisional affinity. However, with regional data, we suggest that the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids were also emplaced in a post-collisional setting, and the arc affinity was probably inherited from recycled subduction-related materials. These lines of evidence obtained in this study enable us to argue that the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt closed before Middle Triassic time.
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterised by a severe disorder of pathophysiology caused by infection of pathogenic micro-organisms. The addition of antioxidant micronutrient therapies such as thiamine to sepsis treatment remains controversial. This study explored the effect of thiamine on the prognosis of patients with sepsis. This study was a retrospective study involving patients with sepsis from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV. Patients were divided into two groups, the thiamine received group (TR) and the thiamine unreceived group (TUR), according to whether they were supplemented with thiamin via intravenous while in the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary outcome was ICU mortality. The association between thiamine and outcome was analysed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model, propensity score matching (PSM), generalised boosted model-based inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) and doubly robust estimation. A total of 11 553 sepsis patients were enrolled in this study. After controlling for potential confounders using Cox regression models, the TR group had a statistically significantly lower ICU mortality risk than the TUR group. The hazard ratio of ICU mortality for the TR group was 0·80 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·93). We obtained the same results after using PSM, IPTW and doubly robust estimation. Supplementation with thiamine has a beneficial effect on the prognosis of patients with sepsis. More randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of thiamine supplementation in the treatment of sepsis.
Improving grain yield and lodging resistance are two important targets for improving rice production. The aim of this study was to link grain yield and lodging resistance with growth patterns in rice. A nitrogen (N) fertilization experiment was conducted in 2020 and 2021, which consisted of two N rates (150 and 225 kg ha–1) and three N split-application ratios among the basal, early tillering, and panicle initiation stages (6:3:1, 5:3:2, and 4:3:3). The results demonstrated that increasing the N rate from 150 to 225 kg ha–1 did not affect grain yield but increased the plant lodging index by 16%. This increase in the plant lodging index was attributable to a higher plant fresh weight resulting from improved post-heading growth and a lower plant lodging load, which was partially due to a higher leaf area index. Altering the N split-application ratio from 6:3:1 to 4:3:3 increased grain yield by 4% but did not affect the plant lodging index in rice. The increase in grain yield was due to improved post-heading growth mainly resulting from increased radiation use efficiency during the post-heading period, which was partially attributable to increased specific leaf weight. An improvement in pre-heading growth in 2021 did not affect grain yield but increased the plant lodging load and decreased the plant lodging index by 36% compared to 2020. The improvement in pre-heading growth was due to a higher intercepted solar radiation resulting from higher leaf area index and incident solar radiation during the pre-heading period. The results of this study indicate that improving pre-heading growth can maintain grain yield and increase lodging resistance, while improving post-heading growth by increasing canopy radiation use efficiency (but not the leaf area index) can increase grain yield and maintain lodging resistance.
High-Mg andesites (HMAs) are crucial for the reconstruction of plate tectonics, continental margin formation and lithospheric evolution. In this study, we present new fossil age, whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd isotope data on the newly discovered Dundunshan Group HMAs in the Dundunshan area of the Beishan orogen (central-southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt). The Dundunshan HMA samples are characterized by high MgO (6.47–7.02 wt%) contents and high Mg# values (67.27–68.77), with SiO2 (58.57–62.13 wt%), Al2O3 (14.49–16.07 wt%) and CaO (5.05–6.24 wt%) resembling typical HMAs. The Dundunshan HMA samples are calc-alkaline and strongly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), with slightly negative Eu anomaly and high-field-strength element (HFSE) depletions. Their (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7041–0.7057) and ϵNd(t) (3.73–5.59) indicate that the Dundunshan HMAs were mainly formed by the interactions between subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. Fossil evidence and published radiometric age data constrain the formation of the Dundunshan HMAs to early Late Devonian time. Sedimentological features of the Middle Devonian Sangejing Formation and regional tectonic correlation suggest that the Hongliuhe–Niujuanzi–Xichangjing Ocean in the Dundunshan area was likely closed during late Middle Devonian time, and that the Dundunshan HMAs were formed in a post-collision extensional setting.
We present a theoretical study of mode evolution in high-power distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber amplifiers. A semi-analytical model taking the side-pumping schemes, transverse mode competition, and stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering into consideration has been built, which can model the static and dynamic mode evolution in high-power DSCCP fiber amplifiers. The mode evolution behavior has been investigated with variation of the fiber amplifier parameters, such as the pump power distribution, the length of the DSCCP fiber, the averaged coupling coefficient, the number of the pump cores and the arrangement of the pump cores. Interestingly, it revealed that static mode evolution induced by transverse mode competition is different from the dynamic evolution induced by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. This shows that the high-order mode experiences a slightly higher gain in DSCCP fiber amplifiers, but the mode instability thresholds for DSCCP fiber amplifiers are higher than those for their end-coupled counterparts. By increasing the pump core number and reducing the averaged coupling coefficient, the mode instability threshold can be increased, which indicates that DSCCP fibers can provide additional mitigation strategies of dynamic mode instability.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
The development of high-yielding, short-duration super-rice hybrids is important for ensuring food security in China where multiple cropping is widely practiced and large-scale farming has gradually emerged. In this study, field experiments were conducted over 3 years to identify the yield formation characteristics in the shorter-duration (∼120 days) super-rice hybrid ‘Guiliangyou 2’ (G2) by comparing it with the longer-duration (∼130 days) super-rice hybrid ‘Y-liangyou 1’ (Y1). The results showed that G2 had a shorter pre-heading growth duration and consequently a shorter total growth duration compared to Y1. Compared to Y1, G2 had lower total biomass production that resulted from lower daily solar radiation, apparent radiation use efficiency (RUE), crop growth rate (CGR), and biomass production during the pre-heading period, but the grain yield was not significantly lower than that of Y1 because it was compensated for by the higher harvest index that resulted from slower leaf senescence (i.e., slower decline in leaf area index during the post-heading period) and higher RUE, CGR, and biomass production during the post-heading period. Our findings suggest that it is feasible to reduce the dependence of yield formation on growth duration to a certain extent in rice by increasing the use efficiency of solar radiation through crop improvement and also highlight the need for a greater fundamental understanding of the physiological processes involved in the higher use efficiency of solar radiation in super-rice hybrids.
The objective of this study was to investigate how different obesity measures link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on follow-up survey data at the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which was conducted in four areas of China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan) in 2013. The survey collected detailed questionnaire information and conducted physical examinations, fasting blood sampling and untargeted metabolomic measurements among 439 adult twins. Linear regression models and bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the relation of obesity measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with serum metabolite levels and related pathways. A co-twin control study was additionally conducted among 15 obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs (intrapair BMI difference >3 kg/m2) to examine any differences in metabolites controlling for genetic factors. Eleven metabolites were associated with BMI, WC and WHR after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. Pathway analysis identified pathways such as phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis that were associated with obesity. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with obesity. Obesity-discordant twin analysis suggests that these associations are independent of genetic liability.
Inflammation might play a role in bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear the relationship between inflammation and brain structural and functional abnormalities in patients with BD. In this study, we focused on the alterations of functional connectivity (FC), peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and their correlations to investigate the role of inflammation in FC in BD depression.
In this study, 42 unmedicated patients with BD II depression and 62 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all participants and independent component analysis was used. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured in all participants. Correlation between FC values and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in BD was calculated.
Compared with the HCs, BD II patients showed decreased FC in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) implicating the limbic network and the right precentral gyrus implicating the somatomotor network. BD II showed increased IL-6 (p = 0.039), IL-8 (p = 0.002) levels. Moreover, abnormal FC in the right precentral gyrus were inversely correlated with the IL-8 (r = −0.458, p = 0.004) levels in BD II. No significant correlation was found between FC in the left OFC and cytokines levels.
Our findings that serum IL-8 levels are associated with impaired FC in the right precentral gyrus in BD II patients suggest that inflammation might play a crucial role in brain functional abnormalities in BD.
The aim of the present study is to determine whether plasma bile acids (BAs) could be used as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Seventeen different BAs were quantitatively measured in plasma of 12 healthy participants and 12 patients with schizophrenia. Then, the data were subjected to correlation and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The concentrations of cholic acid (CA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) were significantly decreased in plasma of the schizophrenia patients. Correlation analysis showed the concentrations of CA, TCDCA and TDCA were negatively correlated with schizophrenia. In addition, LDA demonstrated that combination of CA, TCDCA and TDCA with a classification formula could predict correctly classified cases and the accuracy of prediction was up to 95.83%. Combination of the three BAs may be useful to diagnose schizophrenia in plasma samples.
A–Ar–A-type small molecule (SM) of Py-2DTOBT and Py-2DTOBTPh with an Ar(A–D)2 framework were synthesized, in which 2,7-pyrene (Py) and alkoxyl-substituted benzothiadiazole (OBT) were, respectively, used as the central aryl (Ar) and arm acceptor (A), while 3-phenanthrene (Ph) was used as a terminal donor (D) in Py-2DTOBTPh. By comparison with the parent SM of Py-2DTBT, where 2,7-pyrene (Py) and benzothiadiazole (BT) were used as the central aryl (Ar) and arm acceptor (A), the effects of non-covalent interactions and the terminal group on optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. The gradually improved photovoltaic performances were observed among Py-2DTBT, Py-2DTOBT, and Py-2DTOBTPh based organic solar cells. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.83% was obtained in the Py-2DTOBTPh/PC71BM-based device, which is a 53% improvement related to that of Py-2DTOBT and three times enhanced related to that of Py-2DTBT(Py-2DTOBT:PCE of 1.86%, Py-2DTBT:PCE of 0.74%).