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High levels of stress are expected when crises affect people’s lives. Therefore, this Web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among university students from Pakistan to investigate the psychological impairment and coping strategies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Google Forms were used to disseminate the online questionnaire to assess anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and coping strategies (Brief-COPE). A total of 1134 responses (age, 21.7 ± 3.5 y) were included. The frequency of students having moderate-severe anxiety and depression (score ≥ 10) were ≈ 34% and 45%, respectively. The respondents’ aged ≥ 31 y had significantly lower depression score than those ≤ 20 y (P = 0.047). Males had significantly less anxiety (6.62 ± 5.70 vs 7.84 ± 5.60; P = 0.001) and depression (8.73 ± 6.84 vs 9.71 ± 7.06; P = 0.031) scores. Those having family members, friends, or acquaintances infected with disease had significantly higher anxiety scores (8.89 ± 5.74 vs 7.09 ± 5.56; P < 0.001). Regarding coping strategies, the majority of respondents were found to have adopted religious/spiritual coping (6.45 ± 1.68) followed by acceptance (5.58 ± 1.65), self-distraction (4.97 ± 1.61), and active coping (4.81 ± 1.57). In conclusion, COVID-19 caused significant impairment on mental health of the students. The most frequent coping strategies adopted by students were religious/spiritual and acceptance coping. During epidemics, mental health of students should not be neglected.
Advances in surgical techniques, postoperative care, and immunosuppression have led to greatly improved survival following cardiac transplantation in the past two decades. Patients expiring from overwhelming infection have traditionally been excluded from donor evaluation due to potential transmission of pathogens. Studies of donor-related tumor transmission to transplant recipients usually distinguish between central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS donor malignancies. Case reports have described the transplantation of hearts from donors poisoned with tricyclic antidepressants with satisfactory graft function. Recent case series report a 15-30 percentage prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in donor hearts accepted for transplantation. LV dysfunction is the most frequently cited reason for non-utilization of potential cardiac allografts. Due to the severe donor organ shortage, with long recipient waiting times, non-standard or marginal donor hearts are increasingly being used for higher risk recipients and critically ill patients, leading to an expansion of both the donor and recipient pools.