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To assess the relationship between program attendance in a produce prescription program and changes in cardiovascular risk factors.
The Georgia Food for Health (GF4H) program provided 6 monthly nutrition education sessions, 6 weekly cooking classes, and weekly produce vouchers. Participants became program graduates attending at least 4 of the 6 of both the weekly cooking classes and monthly education sessions. We used a longitudinal, single-arm approach to estimate the association between the number of monthly program visits attended and changes in health indicators.
GF4H was implemented in partnership with a large safety-net health system in Atlanta, GA.
331 participants living with or at-risk of chronic disease and food insecurity were recruited from primary care clinics. Over three years, 282 participants graduated from the program.
After adjusting for program site, year, participant sex, age, race & ethnicity, SNAP participation, and household size, we estimated that each additional program visit attended beyond 4 visits was associated with a 0.06 kg/m2 reduction in BMI (95% CI: -0.12, -0.01; p=0.02), a 0.37 inch reduction in waist circumference (95% CI: -0.48, -0.27; p<0.001), a 1.01 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (95% CI: -1.45, -0.57; p<0.001), and a 0.43 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure (95% CI: -0.69, -0.17; p=0.001).
Each additional cooking and nutrition education visit attended beyond the graduation threshold was associated with modest but significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, suggesting that increased engagement in educational components of a produce prescription program improves health outcomes.
We have developed the bispectral electroencephalography (BSEEG) method for detection of delirium and prediction of poor outcomes.
To improve the BSEEG method by introducing a new EEG device.
In a prospective cohort study, EEG data were obtained and BSEEG scores were calculated. BSEEG scores were filtered on the basis of standard deviation (s.d.) values to exclude signals with high noise. Both non-filtered and s.d.-filtered BSEEG scores were analysed. BSEEG scores were compared with the results of three delirium screening scales: the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS) and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS). Additionally, the 365-day mortalities and the length of stay (LOS) in the hospital were analysed.
We enrolled 279 elderly participants and obtained 620 BSEEG recordings; 142 participants were categorised as BSEEG-positive, reflecting slower EEG activity. BSEEG scores were higher in the CAM-ICU-positive group than in the CAM-ICU-negative group. There were significant correlations between BSEEG scores and scores on the DRS and the DOSS. The mortality rate of the BSEEG-positive group was significantly higher than that of the BSEEG-negative group. The LOS of the BSEEG-positive group was longer compared with that of the BSEEG-negative group. BSEEG scores after s.d. filtering showed stronger correlations with delirium screening scores and more significant prediction of mortality.
We confirmed the usefulness of the BSEEG method for detection of delirium and of delirium severity, and prediction of patient outcomes with a new EEG device.
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