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Psychological distress is a common symptom after natural disasters. Although musculoskeletal pain also increases after natural disasters, its relation to psychological distress is not known. This study aimed to examine the association of musculoskeletal pain with new-onset psychological distress among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.
A panel study was conducted with survivors at 2 and 3 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. New-onset psychological distress was defined as psychological distress absent at 2 years and present at 3 years after the disaster. The number of musculoskeletal pain sites at 2 years after the disaster was divided into 3 categories (0, 1, and ≥2). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for new-onset psychological distress according to the number of musculoskeletal pain sites.
The rate of new-onset psychological distress was 6.7%. Musculoskeletal pain was associated with new-onset psychological distress. Using “0” as a reference, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.65 (0.92-2.95) in “1” and 2.12 (1.24-3.64) in “≥2” (P for trend=.02).
Musculoskeletal pain is associated with new-onset psychological distress among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:295–300)
CoFe2O4/α-Fe2O3 (ferrimagnetic / antiferromagnetic) bilayered films were prepared on α-Al2O3(102) single-crystalline substrates by helicon plasma sputtering. A well-crystallized epitaxial α-Fe2O3(102) layer was formed on the substrate, while CoFe2O4 grown on α-Fe2O3(102) was a polycrystalline layer with a (100)-preferred orientation. The α-Fe2O3(102) films without CoFe2O4 layers clearly showed a spin-flip transition at about 400 K. The spins aligned perpendicular to the film plane at room temperature changed their direction within the film plane above 400 K. However the α-Fe2O3 base layers of CoFe2O4/α-Fe2O3 bilayered films did not show any spin-flip transition. The CoFe2O4 layer on α-Fe2O3 had a large in-plane magnetic anisotropy, while the spin axis of the α-Fe2O3(102) base layer was directed perpendicular to the film plane. The magnetization of ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 layers was coupled perpendicularly to the spin axis of anitiferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 layers due to the exchange coupling at the interface between CoFe2O4 and α-Fe2O3.
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