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Polycrystalline diamond films, single crystal bulk diamonds, and diamond powder were treated in microwave plasma of hydrogen at 1.6 torr under a negative direct-current bias of −150 to −300 V without metal catalyst. It was found that fibrous structures, uniformly elongated along the direction normal to the specimen surface, were formed on the diamond surfaces. Similar experiments for glasslike carbon resulted in conical structures with frizzy fibers at the tops. Transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the fibers formed on diamond consisted of randomly oriented diamond nanocrystals with diameters of less than 10 nm, while the conical structures formed on glasslike carbon consisted of graphite nanocrystals. Field emission measurements of the fibrous specimens exhibited better emission efficiency than untreated ones. The field emission electron microscopy of the fibrous glasslike carbon showed a presence of discrete electron emission sites at a density of approximately 10,000 sites/cm2.
Z-type hexagonal ferrite samples in which cobalt is partially substituted with iron, Ba3Co2-xFe24+xO41 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6), were prepared by the ceramic process under a sintering oxygen partial pressure, PO2 = 21.3 or 101.3 kPa, at 1573 K. The influence of the substitution ratio and oxygen partial pressure on the complex permeability was investigated by examining the cobalt distribution over various cation sites in the Z-type structure with the neutron powder diffraction analysis performed at 294 K (neutron wave length was 1.006Å). The neutron diffraction pattern was studied with the Rietveld method. A significant difference in the preferential occupation of cobalt on various kind of cation sites was observed between the samples obtained under PO2 = 21.3 and 101.3 kPa. Almost all cobalt atoms are on the 12k octahedral site at the boundary between S- and R-blocks in the sample of x = 0, PO2 = 21.3 kPa. On the other hand, in the sample of x = 0, PO2 = 101.3 kPa, cobalt atoms are as well on other sites, the 12k octahedral site at the boundary between S- and T-blocks, the 4e tetrahedral site in S-block, the 2a octahedral site in T-block and the 2d five fold (trigonal bypiramid) site in T-block.
We have characterized heteroepitaxial diamond films on Pt(111) using the nondestructive technique of confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate the variation in structure and strain with depth. The spectral depth profiles of heteroepitaxial diamond showed the diamond peak at 1332–1335 cm-1 and four bands centered at 1230 cm-1, 1470–1490 cm-1, 1530–1580 cm-1, and 1640 cm-1 near the surface. The diamond peak shifted to the single crystal peak position at 1332 cm-1 as the linewidth was broadened with free surface proximity. The compressive strain in the heteroepitaxial diamond crystal decreased and turned into the random strain. At the same time, the Raman band at 1470–1490 cm-1 grew in intensity. The constituents of non-diamond phase in the heteroepitaxial growth regions are different from those formed in the randomly oriented regions.
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