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A novel technique that combines laser thermoreflectance measurement with the 3-omega method is proposed for evaluating the heat capacity of low-k films and the heat resistance at the interface between the low-k film and Si substrate. It was demonstrated that the heat capacity of thin films and the heat resistance at the interface can be determined by obtaining the heat effusivity of the film from laser thermoreflectance measurements, the total heat resistance obtained with the 3-omerga method, and the film density and thickness found from x-ray reflectivity measurements. The heat capacity of SiOC films was determined to be Cp(SiOC) =1.1 kJ/kgK with interface heat resistance of Rint(SiOC) = -2.37×10−8 m2k/W, while the heat capacity of Th-ox films was determined to be Cp(Th−ox) =0.61 kJ/kgK with Rint(Th−ox) = +1.74×10−8 m2k/W. A DSC heat capacity measurement confirmed the reliability of the evaluated Cp data. XRR and TEM examinations revealed that the negative interface heat resistance exhibited by the SiOC films originated from a high density layer at the interface between the film and Si substrate; and the positive interface heat resistance displayed by the Th-ox films stemmed from atomic defects at the interface between the film and Si substrate. These results confirmed that this method is a reliable and effective method for evaluating the heat capacity of low-k films and the heat resistance at the interface.
Two kinds of obviously different-sized –Si3N4 whiskers were grown from silicon melt with different pretreatment vacuum conditions. Their growth interface structures were studied in a cross-section view from micro-areas to macro-areas by combination of micro-area state analysis with chemical shift mapping of Si Kβ bands using electron probe microanalysis. The one pretreated under the lower vacuum condition with a rotary pump was 10–20 μm in diameter and hundreds of micrometers in length, and another pretreated under the higher vacuum condition with a diffusion pump was 0.1–0.2 mm in diameter and 2–5 mm in length. The small Si3N4 whiskers were grown from the surface of the SiC particles within the Si melt. The large Si3N4 whiskers were grown from the surface of Si3N4 crucible. On the basis of these results, their growth mechanisms are discussed from the view of the nucleation sites, impurity source, and thermodynamic stability of the SiC particles. Compared with the Si3N4 grains, the SiC particles influenced the nucleation deeply and caused the process to grow small-sized crystals. Preventing the carbon impurities into the Si melt from forming the SiC particles in the pretreatment process was one effective way to grow the large-sized β–Si3N4 single crystals.
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