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To assess dietary behaviours and related lifestyles according to the presence or absence of skipping breakfast.
We analysed the cross-sectional data from a baseline survey of a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan conducted in 2011–2016. Participants provided information on dietary behaviours and lifestyles through a self-administered questionnaire. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating breakfast at least once a week and was classified according to the frequency of skipping breakfast as 1–2, 3–4 or ≥5 times/week.
Sixteen municipalities in seven prefectural areas across Japan under the Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study for the Next Generation.
112 785 residents (51 952 males and 60 833 females) aged 40–74 years.
After adjustment for age, socio-demographic status, drinking status and smoking status, individuals who skipped breakfast at least once a week, compared with those who ate breakfast every day, were more likely to have adverse dietary behaviours such as frequent eating out (multivariable OR = 2·08, 95 % CI (1·96, 2·21) in males and 2·15, 95 % CI (1·99, 2·33) in females), frequent eating instant foods (1·89, 95 % CI (1·77, 2·01) in males and 1·72, 95 % CI (1·56, 1·89) in females). They had late bedtime (1·85, 95 % CI (1·75, 1·95) in males and 1·98, 95 % CI (1·86, 2·11) in females) and living alone (2·37, 95 % CI (2·17, 2·58) in males and 2·02, 95 % CI (1·83, 2·21) in females), using the logistic regression model.
Both adult males and females who skipped breakfast were likely to eat out, to have a dietary habit of eating instant foods and have lifestyles such as late bedtime and living alone than those who ate breakfast.
Excessive salt intake raises blood pressure and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as CVD, chronic kidney disease and stomach cancer. Reducing the Na content of food is an important public health measure to control the NCD. This study quantifies the amount of salt reduced by using umami substances, i.e. glutamate, inosinate and guanylate, for adults in the USA.
The secondary data analysis was performed using data of the US nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017–2018. Per capita daily salt intake corresponding to the NHANES food groups was calculated in the four hypothetical scenarios of 0 %, 30 %, 60 % and 90 % market share of low-Na foods in the country. The salt reduction rates by using umami substances were estimated based on the previous study results.
4139 individuals aged 20 years and older in the USA
Replacing salt with umami substances could help the US adults reduce salt intake by 7·31–13·53 % (7·50–13·61 % for women and 7·18–13·53 % for men), which is equivalent to 0·61–1·13 g/d (0·54–0·98 g/d for women and 0·69–1·30 g/d for men) without compromising the taste. Approximately, 21·21–26·04 % of the US adults could keep their salt intake below 5 g/d, the WHO’s recommendation in the scenario where there is no low-Na product on the market.
This study provides essential information that the use of umami substances as a substitute for salt may help reduce the US adults’ salt intake.
Lutetium nitride (LuN), an end member of a new quaternary system Si3N4–SiO2–Lu2O3–LuN, was synthesized by direct nitridation of a lutetium metal. The nitridation extent of the lutetium ingot (10 × 5 × 2 mm) reached about 97% by heating at 1600 °C for 8 h with an applied N2 pressure of 0.92 MPa; the initial shape of the bulk metal was maintained in the course of nitridation. The resulting nitrided lutetium possessed a moderately low oxygen content (∼0.7 wt%), which enables the preparation of uncharacterized high nitrogen-containing phases in the Lu–Si–O–N system.