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Fused deposition modelling (FDM) type of 3D printing is widely used for manufacturing complex shaped polymer products. Recently, the metal/polymer composite products can be made by 3D printer using metal/polymer composite filament. Now, we are planning to develop a new manufacturing process of the thermoelectric (TE) elements or modules by combining the FDM-type 3D printing and the degreasing-sintering process. In this work, we focused on the degreasing-sintering process of the mixture of Mg2Si and polylactic acid (PLA) powders. Mg2Si compound powder was synthesized by a liquid-solid phase reaction (LSPR) method. The powder mixtures of Mg2Si, Al and PLA were pressed and heated in a pulse discharge sintering (PDS) chamber under a vacuum in various degreasing conditions. Following the degreasing, the sintering of Mg2Si was carried out in the same PDS chamber at various starting sintering temperatures. Sintered density, Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of the consolidated Mg2Si were measured and the power factor as a TE performance was estimated from the TE properties. The optimum conditions of degreasing-sintering process maximizing the sintered density and the TE performance of Al-doped Mg2Si were investigated. Furthermore, the influences of the additive amount of Al on the sintered density and the TE performance of Mg2Si fabricated via the optimized degreasing-sintering process were investigated.
The torrential rain triggering massive flooding and hundreds of landslides was the worst weather disaster in Western Japan. A temporary pharmacy was established in the Kurashiki health center, which provided medicine to victims.
To evaluate the supply status of prescription under the health insurance system during a disaster.
When the enormous disaster occurred, victims get a prescription in the hospital or community pharmacy under the Disaster Relief Act or Health Insurance Act. Under the Disaster Relief Act, prescriptions that are given at a first aid station are able to be filled at the mobile pharmacies at no cost to the patient from the local government. Prescriptions that are issued by a medical institution, and are in accordance with the Health Insurance Act or National Health Insurance Act, can be dispensed at hospitals or community pharmacies. Patients may be exempt from the co-payment by being covered by their health insurance. Here, we investigated the supply status of prescription to affected people.
The good points of the supply status were as following: 1) dispensing out of disaster area was a good system to relieve a pharmacist2. ) J-SPEED was also a good reporting system to provide appropriative medicine inventory management, and 3) sending prescription using a mobile phone was very useful for pharmaceutical activities. On the other hand, the points for improvement were as following: 1) more time to learn the medical insurance system during the disaster was needed, and 2) the mobile pharmacy is better to make the rounds of shelters including health care consultation.
In case of a disaster, two different medicine supply systems cause confusion to medical relief teams. It is considered that collaboration relief activities with relief teams that included a pharmacist was very important.
Water-splitting by using electric power produced by solar cells is promising system to produce hydrogen without fossil fuels. Oxygen evolving catalyst is, however, major problem to prevent using this system widely because precious materials are used in the catalyst. Considering from the photosynthesis II of plants, the compound of Ca-Mn-O is one of the candidates for the oxygen evolving catalyst. In this study, the synthesis condition and the oxygen evolving electrocatalytic activity of CaMn2O4•xH2O are investigated. The overpotential at 0.1 mA/cm2 was 0.28 V when using the electrode of carbon paste and CaMn2O4•H2O with the weight ratio of 3:1.
HoxEr1-xN (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75) samples were synthesized by nitriding of HoxEr1-x alloy bars and their thermal conductivity κ were measured. The measured κ values were comparable to those of stainless steel and Er3Ni. Ho0.5Er0.5N showed the highest κ of the present three samples. The thermal diffusivity calculated from the κ and the specific heat indicates that Ho0.5Er0.5N is a very promising regenerator material for the cryocoolers. The electrical resistivity ρ was also measured as a function of temperature.
Results on using X-ray optics with a monocapillary attached to a microfocus Mo X-ray tube for a high-intensity XRF analysis are reported. Au-coated glass monocapillaries with 400 and 700 μm inner diameters were used to obtain focused and intensive incident Mo X-rays for the measurements of XRF intensities from pure metal samples. Intensity enhancements obtained by using the Au-coated monocapillaries were found to be up to 1.5 times higher than those obtained by using similar inner diameter uncoated glass capillaries. The XRF intensity profiles were measured by the wire scanning method to investigate the reasons. The traces of the incident X-rays were calculated by taking into account of X-ray total reflection of the incident X-rays from the inner wall of the capillaries. The calculated XRF intensity profiles agree with those of the measured XRF intensity profiles. The observed enhancements in XRF intensity were the results of the incident X-rays emitted from the Mo X-ray tube being totally reflected on the inner wall of the Au-coated monocapillaries.
Photoelectrochemical properties of nitride semiconductors are paid attention due to their possibilities of water splitting by visible light absorption. However, the photocurrent density of InxGa1-xN, which absorbs visible light, is usually lower than that of GaN, which has larger band-gap and absorbing only UV light. The reasons of this are thought to be the band-edge position at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface and the crystal quality. The conduction band-edge decreases with increasing of indium composition and across the hydrogen generation energy at around the indium composition of 0.2. This means that the hydrogen generation ability decreases with increasing of indium composition. Low crystal quality is obtained because the lower growth temperature of InxGa1-xN than that of GaN to achieve the indium incorporation. In order to improve the photocurrent density, band-edge energy control and quantum tunneling effect are tried using the structure of thin GaN layer on InxGa1-xN here. The effect for the photocurrent densities is also discussed.
The systematic investigation on the thermal stability of the CoO layer was carried out for various electrode materials. When Pt with higher oxygen potential (Gibbs free energy change of the oxidation reaction) compared to Co is used as electrodes, the resistance of the Pt/CoO/Pt devise was severely decreased by the post deposition annealing (PDA) process and the resistance switching into the high resistance state was observed in the first voltage sweep. This indicants that the reducing Ar ambient induces the quite local reduction of CoO. The reduction of the CoO layer is also expected even with the Co electrode, which is reasonably attributed to the oxygen concentration gradient at the Co/CoO interface in the Co/CoO/Pt device. With the Ti electrode having a much lower oxygen potential than Co, the reduction of CoO by Ti is also indicated electrically in the Pt/CoO/Ti device. On the other hands, W electrodes which is thought to have the solid-solution oxygen can stabilize the CoO layer during PDA although W is more affinitive with oxygen compared with Co. It can be pointed out the oxygen delivery at the electrode/oxide layer interface is a critical factor in designing the thermally stable stacking structure for resistance random access memory.
We have demonstrated that certain chalcogenide layers within a spinning super-RENS optical disc allow to squeeze the 650 nm laser beam to a spot size as fine as 50 nm using a 15-nm chalcogenide film. The near-field light was focused at a depth of just over 30 nm after passing through a chalcogenide film. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations also reproduced these results. We suggest that a conductive ring aperture generated in the chalcogenide layers plays an important role in the localized light focusing.
Computer-analyzed EEG data and mental functions of the healthy aged (28 survivors and 20 nonsurvivors) were followed for nine years in a study of their relationship with age and longevity. The study revealed that decrease in fast waves occurred from early senescence. The slowing of EEG, the increase in theta waves, and the decrease in alpha frequency became obvious in late senescence, after the late 70s or beyond 80 years. The amount of alpha waves was maintained until the early 80s. The decline of mental functions occurred with the slowing of EEG in late senescence. The slowing of EEG and the lowered scores of psychometrics were closely related to the longevity of life, comparing the survivors and nonsurvivors in retrospect.
Single crystals of AlN have been grown by seeded (on SiC substrates) and unseeded (spontaneous nucleation) sublimation techniques. Tantalum carbide coated graphite crucibles were used. Temperature gradient and source-substrate distance have been found to be the most influencing parameters of crystal growth. AlN crystals of maximum dimension 12 mm (length) × 10 mm (width) × 300 μm (thickness) were grown on 6H-SiC substrates and the best (0002) oriented crystal showed an XRD omega rocking curve FWHM of 4.81 arcmin. AlN nucleated as independent hexagonal islands and coalesced as growth progressed on. Growth rate of AlN grown on C-face SiC has been found to be higher than that on Si-face SiC. Tantalum carbide coated crucibles have been found to be better suited for AlN growth as the impurity incorporation in to the crystals due to crucible was very less. Spontaneously nucleated crystals exhibited an incompleted pyramid-like structure with (1010) and (1100) as their prominent faces.
The static second hyperpolarizabilities (γ) of open-shell organic nonlinear optical (NLO) systems composed of singlet diradical molecules are investigated using ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. It is found that neutral singlet diradical systems with intermediate diradical characters tend to enhance γ as compared to those with small and large diradical characters. This suggests that the diradical character is a novel control parameter of γ for singlet diradical systems.
In every wafer processing step wafer stress management is extremely important for advanced device manufacturing. Thermally induced stress on device wafers has a large impact on lithography and affects device yield. Thermally induced stress during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) steps in high density 512MB DRAM device fabrication was investigated using a lamp-based (cold wall) RTA system and compared to results using a furnace-based (hot wall) single wafer RTA system. Compared to the lamp-based (cold wall) system, RTA in a furnace-based (hot wall) system was found to be very effective in suppressing thermally induced stress and increasing device yield due to superior pattern transfer characteristics in lithography.
Emission light through the prism has been investigated from the Kretschmann configuration of the prism/ Ag thin film/ rhodamine-B (RB) LB film in the resonant excitation of the attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurement. The emission light and the spectra strongly depended upon the emission angles where the light was observed. The emission properties corresponded to the dispersion relation of the resonant excitations of surface plasmons (SPs) in the ATR configuration. It was concluded that the emission light was caused by multiple excitations of SPs in the ATR configuration. It is thought that the phenomenon will be used as a new sensing device.
Behaviour originally depends on precise and specific interconnections between nerve cells. The nervous system itself develops in a series of appropriately timed steps with a temporal sequence characteristic of each neural structure.
The grain size of phosphorous (P)-doped poly-Si film has been enlarged to about 5000 Å by controlling the solidification velocity of molten Si during ArF excimer laser annealing. The drastically enlarged grain has few defects inside the grain. It has been confirmed that control of the solidification velocity is effective for P-doped poly-Si similar to the case of non-doped poly-Si films. In addition, a sheet resistance of 80 Ω/□ (ρ = 4 × 10-4 Ω · cm) has been achieved for very thin (500 Å) films by recrystallizing PECVD P-doped a-Si films.
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