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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the dietary habits of the Japanese population have shown that an effect rs671 allele was inversely associated with fish consumption, whereas it was directly associated with coffee consumption. Although meat is a major source of protein and fat in the diet, whether genetic factors that influence meat-eating habits in healthy populations are unknown. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS to find genetic variations that affect meat consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data using 14 076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with total meat consumption per 1000 kcal energy was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, and principal component analysis components 1–10. We found that no genetic variant, including rs671, was associated with meat consumption. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated with meat consumption in samples of European ancestry could not be replicated in our J-MICC data. In conclusion, significant genetic factors that affect meat consumption were not observed in a Japanese population.
We report a very rare case of monochorionic dizygotic twins conceived spontaneously. The fetuses were sex-discordant in ultrasonography despite being monochorionic twins. After birth, the girl and boy showed normal phenotypes but they showed blood chimerism in karyotype and blood group type.
An expert government committee in Japan decided to revise the chance of a Nankai Trough earthquake in the next 30 years from 70% to between 70 and 80% in 2017. If a mega-earthquake occurs, medical institutions in disaster regions are required to perform self-contained activities during the super-acute phase. Human damage varies depending on whether medical functions can be sustained, particularly in rural areas and isolated islands. Here we examined actual situations.
To identify the issues of a disaster medical system in rural areas and isolated islands that need solving.
Regarding disaster preparedness planning, we conducted a survey on 10 hospitals undesignated as disaster key hospitals of remote area medical care bases (survey group), and 69 hospitals designated as disaster key hospitals (control group) in three prefectures in the Tokai region (Aichi, Mie, and Shizuoka).
We received responses from four hospitals in the survey group and 52 hospitals in the control group. The hospitals in the survey group responded that they could accept 74 severe casualties and 85 moderate casualties. We identified problems such as insufficient stockpiling of fuel, water, and oxygen, and lack of a prioritized lifeline supply contract.
It was predicted that human damage would be relatively minor given smaller populations in rural areas and isolated islands in the Tokai region. However, the number of patients would exceed their acceptance capacity. Moreover, the system for sustaining infrastructure is not adequate for providing medical services. Thus, it was indicated that these regions would be isolated in terms of disaster measures. It is imperative to establish a disaster medical system in rural areas and isolated islands that lack adequate disaster medical systems to manage Nankai Trough earthquakes.
Studies of Galactic LPVs based on astrometric VLBI are presented. We use a VLBI array, “VERA”, to measure parallaxes and calibrate the K-band period luminosity relation (PLR) of the Galactic Miras. Since the PLR offers a distance indicator, its calibration is crucial to reveal their spatial distribution. Parallaxes of dozens of LPVs are presented. For the longer period stars, the mass-loss is high and the stars are obscured and recognized as OH/IR stars. We estimated mid-infrared absolute magnitudes of dozens of OH/IR stars and found that they show a loose concentration around −14 mag at λ of 11.6 μm, indicating an existence of PLR for OH/IR stars. Astrometry of OH/IR stars will also help us to study non-steady spiral arms as proposed from the latest simulation study of the galactic dynamics. We will start astrometric VLBI observation of two OH/IR stars NSV25875 and OH127.8+0.0 at 43 GHz with VERA.
PtCu nanoparticles were synthesized with different pH and support conditions
using radiochemical process. The nanoparticle structures were characterized by
transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission
spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques.
The nanoparticle structure was relevant to the pH of the precursor solutions.
The lattice parameter of PtCu alloy increased in high pH samples, which
indicates the critical effect of metal ion adsorption in precursor solution on
Antiviral activity of metallic Ag nanoparticles immobilized on textile fabrics
were investigated. The Ag nanoparticles synthesized by radiochemical process are
firmly immobilized on the surface of support textile fabrics of cotton. Small Ag
particles of about 2–4 nm were observed together with relatively
large particles of more than 10 nm. The Ag nanoparticles showed antiviral
activity against Influenza A and Feline Calicivirus. The antiviral activity
significantly depended on the concentration of the Eagle’s minimal
essential medium. It was implied that the surface passivation by inhibitory
agent lead to the deactivation of metallic Ag nanoparticles.
The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster.
In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range = one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster.
The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.
MatsumuraT, OsakiS, KudoD, FurukawaH, NakagawaA, AbeY, YamanouchiS, EgawaS, TominagaT, KushimotoS. Water Supply Facility Damage and Water Resource Operation at Disaster Base Hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in the Wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(2):1-5.
This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013.
Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals.
Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552)
A survey was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients treated for hypothermia after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Written questionnaires were distributed to 72 emergency medical hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture. Data were requested regarding inpatients with a temperature less than 36ºC admitted within 72 hours after the earthquake. The availability of functional heating systems and the time required to restore heating after the earthquake were also documented.
A total of 91 inpatients from 13 hospitals were identified. Tsunami victims comprised 73% of the patients with hypothermia. Within 24 hours of the earthquake, 66 patients were admitted. Most patients with a temperature of 32ºC or higher were treated with passive external rewarming with blankets. Discharge without sequelae was reported for 83.3% of patients admitted within 24 hours of the earthquake and 44.0% of those admitted from 24 to 72 hours after the earthquake. Heating systems were restored within 3 days of the earthquake at 43% of the hospitals.
Hypothermia in patients hospitalized within 72 hours of the earthquake was primarily due to cold-water exposure during the tsunami. Many patients were successfully treated in spite of the post-earthquake disruption of regional social infrastructure.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-11)
Electrode catalysts composed of carbon supported PtRu nanoparticles (PtRu/C) synthesized by radiochemical process were annealed to control the PtRu substructure to enhance catalytic activity. The substructure of the PtRu nanoparticles synthesized by using high-energy electron beam under acidic condition was Pt-rich core/Ru-rich shell type, reflecting the redox potentials of each precursor ions. The material characterization techniques revealed that the reductive annealing led to the mixing of PtRu both in the core and on the surface. The sample with annealing temperature of 300°C for 5 hour showed the highest methanol oxidation current, 2.3 times higher than that obtained with before annealing.
Carbon supported Pt-SnO2 electrocatalysts with different Sn/Pt molar ratios were prepared by an electron beam irradiation method. Dissolved gas conditions in the vials irradiated with electron beam were controlled to air or Ar. The results of the material analyses showed that both Pt and SnO2 were immobilized onto carbon support in all catalysts. Bubbling Ar to the precursor solution led to steady change of metal contents in response to the precursor concentrations. The ethanol oxidation activity plotted against Sn/Pt ratio behaved differently with dissolved gas condition of the vial. This difference is discussed with supposed existing state of SnO2 in connection with the reduction process of Pt and Sn.
To clarify advance measures for business continuity taken by disaster base hospitals involved in the Great East Japan Earthquake.
The predisaster situation regarding stockpiles was abstracted from a 2010 survey. Timing of electricity and water restoration and sufficiency of supplies to continue operations were investigated through materials from Miyagi Prefecture disaster medicine headquarters (prefectural medical headquarters) and disaster base hospitals (14 hospitals) in Miyagi Prefecture after the East Japan earthquake.
The number of hospitals with less than 1 day of stockpiles in reserve before the disaster was 7 (50%) for electricity supplies, 8 (57.1%) for water, 6 (42.9%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food. After the disaster, restoration of electricity and water did not occur until the second day or later at 8 of 13 (61.5%) hospitals, respectively. By the fourth postdisaster day, 14 hospitals had requested supplies from the prefectural medical headquarters: 9 (64.3%) for electricity supplies, 2 (14.3%) for water trucks, 9 (64.3%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food.
The lack of supplies needed to continue operations in disaster base hospitals following the disaster clearly indicated that current business continuity plans require revision. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-6)
HoxEr1-xN (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75) samples were synthesized by nitriding of HoxEr1-x alloy bars and their thermal conductivity κ were measured. The measured κ values were comparable to those of stainless steel and Er3Ni. Ho0.5Er0.5N showed the highest κ of the present three samples. The thermal diffusivity calculated from the κ and the specific heat indicates that Ho0.5Er0.5N is a very promising regenerator material for the cryocoolers. The electrical resistivity ρ was also measured as a function of temperature.
A nanoparticle catalyst of PtRuAu/C was synthesized by including an Au precursor in the radiolytic process for preparing a PtRu/C catalyst. Their methanol oxidation activity and electrochemical durability were measured by linear sweep voltammetry before and after potential cycling treatment. PtRuAu/C had a significantly higher durability than PtRu/C while maintaining a comparable high activity. The morphology and substructure of the nanoparticles were investigated by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Metallic nanoparticles with diameters of about 2 nm were obtained; they probably had Pt-core/PtRu-shell structures. Transmission electron microscopy observations after potential cycling revealed that 2-nm-diameter nanoparticles containing Au did not coarsen, whereas nanoparticles without Au coarsened significantly to 3.7 nm. Some crystal defaults were observed in the coarsened particles, implying that the coarsening was caused by Ostwald ripening. The Au addition to catalyst particles consisting of PtRu inhibits coarsening and consequently improves the electrochemical durability.
Nanoparticle catalyst of PtRuAu/C for direct methanol fuel cell anodes was synthesized by a radiolytic process. Its methanol oxidation activity and the electrochemical durability were evaluated by using the linear sweep voltammetry and the cyclic voltammety. The Au addition significantly improved the durability in comparison with PtRu/C catalyst without losing its high activity. The atomic structure was characterized with techniques of the transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction, the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and the X-ray absorption fine structure. These results implied that the arrangement of Pt and Ru atoms in the PtRuAu/C has no significant difference from that without Au, possessing a structure of Pt rich core and PtRu alloy shell. We concluded that the improvement in durability could originate from these PtRu nanoparticles decorated with Au, but not from particles with high Au contents.
A magnetic refrigeration test was performed using a test device filled with spherical GdN material synthesized by the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Refrigeration with an active magnetic regenerator cycle was tested in the temperature range between 48 and 66 K, with the field changing from 1.2 to 3.7 T and 2.0 to 4.0 T at upper and lower sides of the regenerator bed filled with the GdN spheres, respectively. Temperature spans about of 2 K were obtained at both sides, and the total temperature span in each cycle attained about 5 K. The specific heat of the material was measured to calculate the magnetic entropy change ΔS and the adiabatic temperature change ΔT induced by the magnetic field change ΔH. It was suggested that for a given ΔH, larger ΔS and ΔT can be exploited when demagnetized to lower H, especially, to zero field.
Catalysts in which Pt and Cu are immobilized on support particles of γ-Fe2O3 were synthesized by the radiolytic process and were evaluated for CO oxidation in a gas flow mixture (1% CO, 0.5% O2, 67.2% H2 and N2 balance) by measuring the CO concentration in the outlet gas. The Pt/Cu atomic ratios of the as-synthesized catalysts were determined to be 100:0, 90:10, 78:22, 50:50, 21:79, and 11:89, and the total metal loadings determined by chemical analyses were 10 wt%. Material characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption near edge structure, and transmission electron microscopy, and it was indicated that the composite catalysts consist of Pt-Cu bimetallic grains immobilized on the support at higher Pt-loading, while CuO with poor crystallinity is also observed at lower Pt-loading. The catalytic activity decreased as the Pt-loading was decreased to 50 at%, and also with increasing temperature. However, as the Pt-loading was further decreased, the activity contrariwise increased, and increased with increasing temperature up to 100 °C. The sample containing only 11 at% Pt exhibited the highest activity at 100 °C, which is higher than that of the commercial catalyst measured for comparison, and given at a lower temperature than that for the commercial catalyst. This enhanced activity, despite the low Pt-loading, could be attributed to oxygen supply via CuO from the O2-poor atmosphere to PtCu bimetallic grains trapping CO molecules. This new material is promising for use as a catalyst to purify hydrogen gas fed to a polymer electrolyte fuel cell.
Many parsing techniques assume the use of a packed parse forest to enable efficient and accurate parsing. However, they suffer from an inherent problem that derives from the restriction of locality in the packed parse forest. Deterministic parsing is one solution that can achieve simple and fast parsing without the mechanisms of the packed parse forest by accurately choosing search paths. We propose new deterministic shift-reduce parsing and its variants for unification-based grammars. Deterministic parsing cannot simply be applied to unification-based grammar parsing, which often fails because of its hard constraints. Therefore, this is developed by using default unification, which almost always succeeds in unification by overwriting inconsistent constraints in grammars.