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To assess the course and status of recovery of rocky intertidal zonation after massive subsidence caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, from 2011 to 2013 we censused the vertical distribution of 10 dominant macrobenthic species (six sessile and four mobile species) in the mid-shore zone of 23 sites along the Sanriku coastline, 150–160 km north-northwest of the earthquake epicentre, and compared the vertical distributions of each species with their vertical distributions in the pre-earthquake period. The dynamics of rocky intertidal zonation varied substantially among species. Among sessile species, one barnacle dramatically increased in abundance and expanded its vertical range in 2011, but then decreased and completely disappeared from all plots by 2013. Zonations of other sessile species shifted downward following the subsidence in 2011. With some species, there was no clear change in abundance immediately after the earthquake, but they then began to increase and move upward after a few years; with other species, abundance continuously decreased. There was no clear change in the vertical distribution of any of the mobile species immediately after the earthquake. Abundance of two mobile species was unchanged, but abundance of the others decreased from 2012 and had not recovered as of 2013.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ultrasound-derived prediction equations for estimating total and regional skeletal muscle (SM) mass in adults are applicable for prepubertal children and adolescents. Ten Japanese prepubertal children and twenty-one adolescents volunteered for the study. Contiguous MRI images with a 1 cm slice thickness were obtained from the first cervical vertebra to the ankle joints as reference data. The SM volume was calculated from the summation of digitised cross-sectional areas. The regional SM volume was determined by anatomical landmarks visible in the scanned images. The volume units were converted into mass by an assumed SM density (1·041 g/cm3). Muscle thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound at nine sites on different muscles (lateral forearm, anterior and posterior upper arm, abdomen, subscapular, anterior and posterior thigh, anterior and posterior lower leg). Total and regional SM mass was estimated using adult prediction equations. Mean values between measured and predicted total and regional segments of SM mass were not significantly different for adolescents, but were for prepubertal children. There was a relatively large range of the 95 % limits of agreement both in prepubertal children and adolescents. These results suggest that the adult ultrasound-derived prediction equations are useful for estimating total and regional SM mass for adolescents at the group level, but the relatively high degree of variability suggested limited reliability at the individual level both in prepubertal children and adolescents.
The incidence and circumstances of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were prospectively investigated. Among 404 patients, 15 (3.7%) were carriers on admission, and 43 (10.6%) became colonized, mainly after surgical operation. A different mode of transmission was suggested in each ward.
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