In our research on traditional clothing and accessories in the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, we have collected cloth fragments from traditional Ryukyuan costumes and other fabric products for radiocarbon (14C) dating. In this study, the cloth samples from historical costumes of noro priestesses (two samples), men and women from high-status families (five samples), and non-costume cloth products (seven samples), belonging to the traditional hereditary religious system of the ancient Ryukyu Kingdom, which lasted from approximately the 14th century AD to 1829 were analyzed. One extra sample originated from a silk shawl known as a Manila shawl. The oldest among the 15 samples dates back to the mid-15th century, but some newer ones belong to the unclear calibrated age range of AD 1650–1950. The measured dates are very consistent with the historical record, suggesting that acetone and acid-alkali-acid treatments are an adequate cleaning method for radiocarbon dating of silk and cotton samples produced in the late Middle Age and later.