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A foodborne outbreak related to milk cartons served in school lunches occurred in June 2021, which involved more than 1,800 cases from 25 schools. The major symptoms were abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, and fever. Although major foodborne toxins and pathogens were not detected, a specific Escherichia coli strain, serotype OUT (OgGp9):H18, was predominantly isolated from milk samples related to the outbreak and most patients tested. The strains from milk and patient stool samples were identified as the same clone by core genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The strain was detected in milk samples served for two days related to the foodborne outbreak at a rate of 69.6% and levels of less than ten most probable number/100 mL but not on days unrelated to the outbreak. The acid tolerance of the strain for survival in the stomach was similar to that of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and the same inserts in the chu gene cluster in the acid fitness island were genetically revealed. The pathogenicity of the strain was not clear; however, it was indicated that the causative pathogen was atypical diarrhoeagenic E. coli OUT (OgGp9):H18.
To control an input energy for a load, an impedance control with a gap distance of an electron beam diode was studied using an intense pulsed-power generator. The output current of the pulsed-power generator as a function of the gap distance of electron beam diode was measured. It indicated that the behaviors of the experimentally obtained peak current and the theoretically obtained space-charge limited current were found to decrease with an increase in the gap distance. The input energy for the load was estimated from the output current, which decreased with an increase in the gap distance. It also revealed the space-charge limited current suppresses the input energy for the load with a decade.
Protoplanetary disks are ubiquitously observed around young solar-mass stars and are considered to be not only natural by-products of stellar evolution but also precursors of planet formation. If a forming star has close companions, the protoplanetary disk may be seriously influenced. It is important to consider this effect because most stars form as multiples. Thus, studies of protoplanetary disks in multiple systems are essential to describe the general processes of star and planet formation.
We present the direct image of an interacting binary protoplanetary system. We obtained an infrared image of a young multiple circumstellar disk system, SR24, with the Subaru 8.2-m Telescope. Both circumprimary and circumsecondary disks are clearly resolved with a 0.1 arcsecond resolution. The binary system exhibits a bridge of infrared emission connecting the two disks and a long spiral arm extending from the circumprimary disk. A spiral arm would suggest that the SR24 system rotates counter-clockwise. The orbital period of the binary is 15,000 yr. Numerical simulations reveal that the bridge corresponds to gas flow and a shock wave caused by the collision of gas rotating around the primary and secondary stars. The simulations also show that fresh material streams along the spiral arm, confirming the theoretical proposal that gas is replenished from a circum-multiple reservoir. These results reveal the mechanism of interacting protoplanetary disks in young multiple systems. Furthermore, our observations provide the first direct image that enables a comparison with theoretical models of mass accretion in binary systems. The observations of this binary system provide a great opportunity to test and refine theoretical models of star and planet formation in binary systems.
Studies of the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks are important for understanding star and planet formation. Here, we present the direct image of an interacting binary protoplanetary system. Both circumprimary and circumsecondary disks are resolved in the near-infrared. There is a bridge of infrared emission connecting the two disks and a long spiral arm extending from the circumprimary disk. Numerical simulations show that the bridge corresponds to gas flow and a shock wave caused by the collision of gas rotating around the primary and secondary stars. Fresh material streams along the spiral arm, consistent with the theoretical scenarios where gas is replenished from a circummultiple reservoir.
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