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Although chronic pain (CP) is classified as inflammatory or non-inflammatory, the involvement of fatty acid intake in this process has not yet been examined in detail. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the relationship between CP and fatty acid intake differs between high and low C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in middle-aged and elderly individuals in the Shika study. One-thousand and seven males and 1216 females with mean ages of 68⋅78 and 69⋅65 years, respectively, participated in the present study. CRP was quantified by blood sampling from participants who responded to a CP questionnaire. The brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) was used to assess fatty acid intake. Interactions were observed between CP and CRP on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and eicosadienoic acid in a two-way analysis of covariance adjusted for sex, age, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, current smoking and drinking status, and BMI. MUFA (OR 1⋅359) and eicosadienoic acid (OR 1⋅072) were identified as significant independent variables for CP in a multiple logistic regression analysis, but only in the low CRP group. Only a high intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid was associated with chronic neck/shoulder/upper limb pain without elevated CRP. In psychogenic and neuropathic pain without elevated CRP, an increased intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid, a family member of n-6 fatty acids, appears to affect CP. Further longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.
This study aims to evaluate the long-term impact of living in postdisaster prefabricated temporary housing on social interaction activities and mental health status.
A total of 917 adult residents in a coastal town, whose residences were destroyed by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), were enrolled for the assessment held 5 y after the disaster. They answered questions about their experience and consequence of living in prefabricated temporary housing after the disaster. Their present scores on 5 types of self-reported measures regarding the psychosocial or psychiatric status and their present and recalled social interaction activities were cross-sectionally collected.
A total of 587 (64.0%) participants had a history of living in prefabricated temporary housing, while the other 330 (36.0%) had not. The prevalence of social interaction activities significantly decreased after the GEJE. However, the experience of living in prefabricated temporary housing did not adversely affect the subsequent social interaction activities or mental conditions of the participants 5 y after the disaster.
Living in postdisaster prefabricated temporary housing may not negatively impact subsequent psychosocial conditions or social interaction activities 5 y later.
Stimuli-responsive degradable silica nanoparticles (NPs) are active topics of nanomaterial research, because they are expected to be low health-risk nanocarriers capable of controlled release of drugs. Among various stimuli-responsive silica NPs, disulfide bond-containing NPs show degradability by glutathione reduced form (GSH). Here, we synthesized and characterized three kinds of thiol-organosilica NPs made from 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPMS) and 3-mercaptopropyl(dimethoxy)methylsilane (MPDMS). MPMS NPs, MPDMS NPs, and MPMS–MPDMS hybrid NPs revealed that the abundance ratio of disulfide bonds to thiols increased with the increase in content rate of MPDMS in thiol-organosilica NPs. We also revealed that thiol-organosilica NPs, which have disulfide bonds, are GSH-responsive degradable silica NPs using an electron microscopy and Ellman’s tests. Furthermore, we synthesized fluorescent MPMS–MPDMS NPs, including rhodamine B, and demonstrated the GSH-responsive release of dye from the NPs. These experiments indicate the potential of thiol-organosilica NPs, which have disulfide bonds as a GSH-responsive drug carrier.
We investigated triple ion implanted 4H-SiC BJT with etched extrinsic base regions. To remove the defects induced by ion implantation between emitter and base regions, the characteristics of triple ion implanted 4H-SiC BJT were significantly improved. Maximum common current gain was improved from 1.7 to 7.5.
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of three polyphenols (tannic acid, apigenin and quercetin) on hyaluronidase activity and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters. Among them, tannic acid showed by far the strongest potency for blocking hyaluronidase activity extracted from preincubated boar sperm, causing a dose-dependent inhibition over the range of 2–10 μg/ml. When cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes were inseminated in IVF medium containing tannic acid, the penetration and the polyspermy rates were significantly decreased in the presence of 10 μg/ml tannic acid compared with those in the absence of tannic acid, and the addition of 5 μg/ml tannic acid significantly reduced the polyspermy rate (p < 0.05) compared with that of the control while maintaining the high penetration rate. However, apigenin and quercetin had no effect on the rate of polyspermy. Interestingly, the incidence of polyspermy was significantly reduced in oocytes inseminated with sperm pretreated with 5 μg/ml tannic acid (p < 0.05), although the pretreatment of oocytes had no effect against the polyspermy after insemination with untreated sperm. Treatment with tannic acid caused neither a protective proteolytic modification of the zona pellucida matrix before fertilization, nor a reduction of the proteolytic activity of acrosomal contents or the number of zona-bound spermatozoa. These data suggest that an appropriate concentration of tannic acid prevents polyspermy through the inhibition of sperm hyaluronidase activity during IVF of porcine oocytes.
Using reverse-phase HPLC after pyridylamination, we quantified the concentrations of major neutral oligosaccharides in the milk of sixteen Japanese women collected at 4, 10, 30 and 100 d postpartum. In colostrum and mature milk (30 d lactation), lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I was the most abundant oligosaccharide, followed by 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) + lacto-N-difucotetraose (LNDFT), LNFP II + lacto-N-difucohexaose II (LNDFH II), and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL). Together these accounted for 73 % of the total weight of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum and mature milk. Changes in concentration occurred during the course of lactation. LNFP I and 2′-FL + LNDFT increased from 4 to 10 d postpartum, and then declined by 100 d. LNFP II + LNDFH II steadily increased during the first 30 d and then declined. In contrast, 3-FL increased steadily throughout the entire 100 d of study. Large differences were observed between our data and previously published data in Italian women, in terms of both the concentration and temporal changes of each oligosaccharide. These differences may be caused by different assay methodology, although racial differences cannot be ruled out.
Melting and crystallization experiments of InGaSb were done under the reduced gravity condition (10–2G) in an airplane and at the normal gravity condition (1G) in the laboratory. Crystallized InGaSb was found to contain many needle crystals in both the cases. Reduced gravity condition was found to be more conducive for crystal growth than the normal gravity condition. Formation of spherical projections on the surface of InGaSb during its crystallization was in-situ observed using a high speed CCD camera in the drop experiment. Spherical projections showed dependence of gravity during its growth. Indium compositions in the spherical projections were found to vary depending on the temperature.
Melting and crystallization experiments of InGaSb were done under the reduced gravity condition (10−2G) in an airplane and at the normal gravity condition (1G) in the laboratory. Crystallized InGaSb was found to contain many needle crystals in both the cases. Reduced gravity condition was found to be more conducive for crystal growth than the normal gravity condition. Formation of spherical projections on the surface of InGaSb during its crystallization was in-situ observed using a high speed CCD camera in the drop experiment. Spherical projections showed dependence of gravity during its growth. Indium compositions in the spherical projections were found to vary depending on the temperature.
Bioactive ceramics are known, which can bind bone tissue chemically. The authors tested bone-bonding strength of biomaterials using detaching test and observed the interface between bone and bioactive ceramics with transmission electron microscopy. An intervening apatite layer was observed at the interface of bone and bioactive ceramics. This layer was distinguished from bone apatite or ceramic. This apatite layer was formed within several days after implantation before bone was observed on the materials. Bisphosphonate is well known to inhibit apatite formation. The injection of bisphosphonate to rabbits concentrationdependently decreased bone-bonding strength of ceramics. The apatite layer was formed on bioactive ceramics in vitro by immersing them in simulated body fluid that contained similar concentrations of inorganic ions as plasma did. Using this apatite layer formed in vitro, it is possible to characterize the apatite layer. This apatite layer enhanced the differentiation of rat bone marrow cells to bone cells in vitro. When osteoclasts were cultured on this layer, they absorbed the apatite layer.
These results suggested this apatite layer not only plays a key role for bone bonding but also behaved as bone-like tissues.
This research investigates mechanisms of drifting snow accumulation, and of strong wind associated with snow clouds (developed cumulus). Detailed structure of snow drifting close to the ground was observed at several sites by use of snow particle counters (SPC), visibility meters and other meteorological instruments, simultaneously with observations of wind structure in the lower atmosphere using Doppler radar and radiosonde. Areal distributions of drifting snow were also observed as a function of time. Primary results include the following. (1) The intensity of drifting snow was found to have a strong correlation with fetch distance. Of obstacles to windward of the observation point, a river interfered with drifting snow more effectively than did a hamlet. (2) The areal distribution of drifting snow is explained fully. (3) Visibility, reflectivity and wind velocity at ground level are strongly related to drifting snow patterns.
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